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Immunology Test2 Pra

Practice for Immunology test 2 for Del-Tech Owens

QuestionAnswer
The ability of a substance, like an antigen or an epitope, to provoke an immune response in the body is called ? immunogenicity
What are the 3 basic ways that the immune system uses to recognize antigens? 1. antibodies 2. T-cell receptors 3. produces of MHC
What are 3 characteristics that determine immunogenicity? 1. foreignness 2. molecular size 3. chemical complexity
The method of __ to the body matters in immunogencity. introduction or entry
Some chemicals can serve as immune adjuvants that can __ the immunogencity of a particle. increase (that's what adjuvants do in this context)
Foreignness refers to the __ relationship between the host and the antigen. phylogenetic
The more phylogenetically different the particle is, the __ the immune response. better or greater
An antigen that is actually part of the body is called an ? autoantigen
An antigen that is similar to the cells of the host, such as those from another member of the same species, are called ? alloantigens
Antigens that belong to another species are called ? heteroantigens
When testing for antibodies, be careful of __-reactivity. cross
A reaction that occurs in blood testing when a disease agent reacts to the specific antibody for another (but similar) disease agent is called ? cross-reaction
Larger antigens have __ immunogenicity. stronger
Small compounds that are too small to stimulate an immune response on their own are called ? haptens
A larger molecule that has bound to a hapten (allowing it to be detected by the immune system) is called a ? carrier molecule
__ are the most immunogenic molecules. Proteins
Carbohydrates are __ immunogenic than proteins. less
Lipids and nucleic acids usually aren't immunogenic unless they are __ linked to an immunogenic carrier. covalently
Nucleic acids are __ immunogenic than lipids. less
An immunogen is an __ that produces an immune response. antigen
Adjuvants in vaccines can stimulate a localized __ reaction at the site of an injection to increase the immune response. inflammatory
Vaccines can release their antigens __ to increase the immune response. slowly
Good vaccine adjuvants will recruit __ and __ cells for better uptake of the antigen. phagocytic and inflammatory
__ salts are sometimes used as vaccine adjuvants. Aluminum
__ oil is sometimes used as an adjuvant in vaccines. Mineral
Lipids and nucleic acids usually aren't immunogenic unless they are covalently linked to an __ __. immunogenic carrier
Which kind of epitopes are related to the amino acid sequence of an antigen? linear epitopes
Which kind of epitopes are related to the antigen's 3 dimensional structure? conformational epitopes
An antibody-producing cell __ synthesizes antibodies that recognize a specific antigenic determinant. clone
Epitopes may be shared by different __. antigens
When your immune system reacts to the epitope of a new pathogen that is similar to the epitope of a pathogen you have encountered before, this is called __-reactivity. cross
There are 3 classes of MHC molecule. Which 2 play a role in immune responses? Class 1 and 2
Which class of MHC molecule encodes for cytokines, complement, and heat shock proteins? Class 3
All nucleated cells express MHC class ? 1
Another word or phrase for MHC molecules is ? HLA (human leukocyte antigens)
MHC haplotypes are highly __. polymorphic
MHCs are __ from our parents. inherited
MHCs are __-dominantly expressed. co-
You will inherit 2 of the total __ MHCs possessed by your parents. 4
Class 1 MHC molecules are involved in antigen presentation of __ antigens. endogenous (those INSIDE an infected cell)
Class 1 MHC molecules are expressed by what 3 regions of the MHC? A, B, C
When an antigen presenting cell is infected, it will present which MHC molecule to local T-cells? Class 1
Which kind of T-cell reacts when an MHC class 1 molecule is presented? Cytotoxic T cell
Which kind of MHC molecule is normally expressed on antigen presenting cells? Class 2
MHC class 2 molecules are encoded by what regions? DR,DP, DQ
MHC class 2 molecules recognize __ angtigens. exogenous (those OUTSIDE the infected cell)
Which kind of T-cell reacts when an MHC class 2 molecule is presented? Helper T cell
Infected cells present to cytotoxic T cells with MHC class 1 molecules so they can be ? destroyed: MHC class 1 presentation tells the T cell that the APC is infected and so it must be destroyed
MHC class 1 molecules have 3 __ domains and 1 __ __ molecule. a domains, 1 beta-2 microglubulin molecule
MHC class 2 molecules have 2 __ domains and 2 __ domains. 2 a domains and 2 beta domains
How do T-cells recognize antigen epitopes? T-cell receptors
T-cell receptors are made of 2 __ covalently linked by a single disulfide bond. heterodimers
T cell co-receptors express CD__. 3
The CD3 co-receptor on a T cell signals and __ the cell after antigen presentation. activates
All T cells express MHC class __. 1
Humoral B cells express MHC class __. 2
T cell receptors only exist on the T cell's __. surface
T-cell receptors are made of 2 heterodimers linked __ by a single disulfide bond. covalently
T cell receptors have a higher __ diversity than antibodies. V-J
WBCs tend to present __ immunogens to T cells. strong
What are the 4 steps to antigen presentation? 1. APC binds to the antigen 2. APC internalizes the antigen 3. APC processes the antigen 4. APC presents the antigen with MHC 1 or 2 molecule
Cytotoxic T cells present CD__. 8
T-cell receptors are made of 2 heterodimers covalently linked by a single __ bond. disulfide
T helper cells present CD__. 4
Class 1 MHC molecules come from __ the cell. inside
Class 2 MHC molecules come from __ the cell. outside
What kind of cells have MHC class 2 molecules on their surface? antigen presenting cells
Where does the T cell put the MHC molecule once it receives it from the antigen presenting cell? Golgi compartment
Class 2 MHCs are complexed to the __ __. invariant chain (Ii)
Class 1 MHC molecules bind antigenic peptides in the __ __. endoplasmic reticulum
Class 2 MHC molecules move from the endoplasmic reticulum to the __ __. endosomal or lysosomal compartment
Before antigen presentation, the invariant chain complexed with the MHC 2 molecule is __. removed
What cytokine released by activated T cells causes an increase in the number of MHC class 2 molecules? interferon-y
Name 6 kinds of antigen presenting cells. 1. B cells 2. macrophages 3. dendritic cells 4. fibroblasts 5. thymic epithelial cells 6. vascular endothelial cells
What kind of "professional" antigen presenting cell is the best? dendritic
B cells recognize angtigens via surface ? antibodies or immunoglobulins
Regulatory T cells express which CDs? 25+ and usually CD4
Not responding to a specific antigen is known as __ __. immunological tolerance
Immunological tolerance can be induced by ? prior exposure to the antigen
What is a common example of immunological tolerance? Baby in utero
What can block IgE from attaching to allergens? IgG
If thymocytes (immature T cells) recognize self MHC molecules, they will __ and __. survive and proliferate
If thymocytes (immature T cells) do not recognize self MHC molecules, they will __ of neglect. die
The theory of __ __ says that thymocytes will live or die depending on their ability to recognize self MHC molecules. positive selection
If a thymocyte can recognize MHC class 1 molecules, it will become a ? CD8+ cytotoxic T cell
If a thymocyte can recognize MHC class 2 molecules, it will become a ? CD4+ T helper cell
CD4 T cells __ the immune response. augment or enhance
CD8 T cells __ antigens. attack of phagocytize
Antigen presenting cells express antigen peptides/epitopes in the __ on the surface of the MHC class 2 moleculre. cleft
T cells enter secondary lymphatic tissues via high __ __. endothelial venules
Antigen presentation takes place in __ __ organs. secondary lymphatic
Created by: IsaacJ