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Ch.4

IT Infrastructure: Hardware and Software

TermDefinition
Andriod open source operating system for mobile devices developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. currently the most popular smartphone operating system worldwide
application server software that handles all application operations between browser based computers and a company's back-end business applications or databases.
application software programs written for a specific application to perform functions specified by end users
apps small pieces of software that run on the internet, on a computer, or on a mobile phone and a re generally delivered over the internet.
autonomic computing effort to develop systems that can manage themselves without user intervention
C a powerful programming language with tight control and efficiency of execution; is portable across different microprocessors and is used primarily with PC's
C++ is a newer version of C that has all the capabilities of C plus additional features for working with software objects.
capacity planning the process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated to ensure that adequate computing resources are available for work of different priorities and that the firm has enough computing power for its current and future needs.
CD-Rom (compact disc read-only memory) read-only optical disk storage used for imaging, reference, and database applications with massive amounts of unchanging data and for multimedia
centralized processing processing that is accomplished by one large central computer.
chrome OS google's lightweight computer operating system for users who do most of their computing on the internet; runs on computers ranging from netbooks to desktop computers.
client the user point-of entry for the required function in client/server computing. normally a desktop computer, workstation, or laptop computer.
client/server computing a model for computing that splits processing between clients and servers on a network, assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function.
cloud computing web-based applications that are stored on remote servers and accessed via the "cloud" of the internet using a standard web browser.
data center facility housing computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications, storage and security systems and backup power supplies.
data management software software used for creating and manipulating lists, creating files and databases to store data, and combining information for reports.
digital video disc (DVD) high-capacity optical storage medium that can store full-length videos and large amounts of data.
distributed processing the distribution of computer processing work among multiple computers linked by a communications network.
extensible markup language (XML) a more powerful and flexible markup language than hypertext markup language (HTML) for web pages
fourth-generation languages programming languages that can be employed directly by end users or less-skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages.
google apps Google Apps is a service from Google providing independently customizable versions of several Google products under a custom domain name. ...
graphical user interface (GUI) the part of an operating system users interact with that uses graphic icons and the computer mouse to issue commands and make selections.
green computing (green IT) practices and technologies for producing, using, and disposing of computers and associated devices to minimize impact on the environment.
grid computing applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem.
HTML5 next evolution of HTML, which will make it possible to embed images, video, and audio directly into a document without using add-on software.
hypertext markup language (HTML) page description language for creating web pages and other hypermedia documents.
input devices device which gathers data and converts them into electionic form for use by the computer.
Java an operating system-independent, processor-independent, object-oriented programming language that has become a leading interactive programming environment for the web.
Legacy systems system that have been in existence for a long time and that continue to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning them
Linux reliable and compactly designed operating system that is an open-source offshoot of UNIX and that can run on many different hardware platforms and is available free or at very low cost.
magnetic disc A secondary storage medium in which data are stored by means of magnetized spots on a hard or floppy disk.
magnetic tape inexpensive, older secondary-storage medium in which large volumes of information are stored sequentially by means of magnetized and non-magnetized spots on tape.
mainframe largest category of computer, used for major business processing.
mashups composite software applications that depend on high-speed networks, universal communication standards, and open source code and are intended to be greater than the sum of their parts.
multicore processor integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.
multitouch interface that features the use of one or more finger gestures to manipulate lists or objects on a screen without using a mouse or keyboard.
nanotechnology technology that builds structures and processes based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.
N-tier client/server architectures client/server arrangement which balances the work of the entire network over multiple levels of servers.
object software building block that combines data and the procedures acting on the data.
office 2010 the latest version of Microsoft desktop software suite with capabilities for supporting collaborative work on the web or incorporating information from the web into documents.
offshore software outsourcing outsourcing systems development work or maintenance of existing systems to external vendors in another country.
on-demand computing firms off-loading peak demand for computing power to remote, large-scale data processing centers, investing just enough to handle average processing loads and paying for only as much additional computing power as they need. also called utility computing.
open source software software that provides free access to its program code, allowing users to modify the program code to make improvements or fix errors.
operating system the system software that manages and controls the activities of the computer.
output devices device that displays data after they have been processed.
outsourcing the practice of contracting computer center operations, telecommunications networks, or applications development to external vendors.
personal computer (PC) small desktop or portable computer.
presentation graphics software software to create professional-quality graphics presentations that can incorporate charts, sound, animation, photos, and video clips.
private cloud proprietary network or data center that ties together servers, storage, networks, data, and applications as a set of virtualized services that are shared by users inside a company
public cloud cloud maintained by an external service provider, accessed through the internet, and available to the general public.
query languages software tools that provide immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined.
SaaS (Software as a Service) Services for delivering and providing access to software remotely as a web-based service.
scalability the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down.
server computer specifically optimized to provide software and other resources to other computers over a network.
service level agreement (SLA) formal contract between customers and their service providers that defines the specific responsibilities of the service provider and the level of service expected by the customer.
service-oriented architecture (SOA) Software architecture of a firm built on a collection of software programs that communicate with each other to perform assigned tasks to create a working software application.
software package a prewritten, precoded, commercially available set of programs that eliminates the need to write software programs for certain functions.
spreadsheet software software displaying data in a grid of columns and rows, with the capability of easily recalculating numerical data.
storage area networks (SANs) high-speed networks dedicated to storage that connects different kinds of storage devices, such as tape libraries and disk arrays so they can be shared by multiple servers.
supercomputer highly sophisticated and powerful computer that can perform very complex computations extremely rapidly.
system software generalized programs that manage the computer's resources, such as the central processor, communications links, and peripheral devices.
tablet computer mobile handheld computer that is larger than a mobile phone, and operated primarily by touching a flat touch screen.
total cost of ownership (TCO) designates the total cost of owning technology resources, including initial purchase costs, the cost of hardware and software upgrades, maintenance , technical support, and training.
Unix operating system for all types of computers, which is machine independent and supports multiuser processing, multitasking, and networking. used in high-end workstations and servers.
virtualization presenting a set of computing resources so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location.
visual basic is a widely used visual programming tool and environment for creating applications that run on microsoft windows operating systems.
visual programming language allows users to manipulate graphic or iconic elements to create programs
web browsers easy-to-use software tool for accessing the world wide web and the internet.
web hosting service company with large web server computers to maintain the web sites of fee-paying subscribers.
web server software that manages requests for web pages on the computer where they are stored and that delivers the page to the user's computer.
web services set of universal standards using internet technology for integrating different applications from different sources without time-consuming custom coding. used for linking systems of different organizations or for linking disparate systems, in organization.
windows 7 the successor to microsoft windows vista operating system released in 2009
windows 8 most recent windows operating system.
word processing software software for electronically creating, editing, formatting, and printing documents.
workstation desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to perform several complicated tasks at once.
Created by: 1493084379