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Theory of Programming Language

What language was originally developed by Ken Thompson at Bell labs in conjunction with the design of UNIX operating system? C
Who was the backing power for Cobalt? IBM
Who was the backing power for ADA? United States Department of Defence
What is the interaction between assembly language and machine language? one to one
what is generally considered the first high level programming language? Fortran
What is a Just in Time Compiler? A programming system that deliberately delays compilation until last possible moment
What era was the first program written? 1940's
What program did Microsoft first support? C#
In what circumstance does it make sense to program in an assembler language? When you are programming a specialty program
What are the names of two widely used Concurrent languages today? Java and C#
What was the first functional language? Lisp
Is Java compiled or interpreted? Both
What is P-Code? A notation resembling a simplified programming language, used in program design.
What is bootstrapping? When a compiler is used to compile itself
What languages can write new pieces of itself? Lisp, Prolog and Python
What is typically used as a target program in a compiler? Machine language
What is commonly know as microcode in a day to day computer? Firmware
What is a Token when working with programming? The smallest meaningful unit of a program
What does the code generation phase of a compiler perform? Translates the intermediate for into target language
What is the purpose of a compiler's symbol table? Maps an identifier to the information known about it.
What is syntax? The set of rules that defines the combination of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
What is Semantics? The relation between signifires, like words, phrases, signs and symbols and what they stand for.
Tokens are constructed from independent characters using three kinds of format rules? True
What is Backus-Naur form? Context free grammar
When discussing context free grammar, what is a derivation? What is a sentimental form? A series of replacement characters that show how to derive a string in terminals from the start symbol, each string of sybols
What is pragmas? Constructs that provide directives or hints the the compiler
are significant comments are considered pragmas? True
What is the process when up-coming characters are examined by a scanner in order to make a decission? Look Ahead
What is the "longest possible token rule?" Whenever a legitimate token is a prefix to another token, we should continue scanning
How does a scanner identify lexical errors? How does it respond? When characters input is neither an acceptable continuation of the current token nor the start of another token. It prints and error message.
Why must a scanner save the text of tokens? To make it easier to generate high quality error messages in subsequent phases.
What is the difference between keyword and identifier? Identifiers can be redefined to have different meanings keywords cannot.
What is the significant meaning of LL? Left to Rigt, left most deviation
Compilers are the same as assembler, just a newer version? False
What is a syntax error? When a character or string is incorrectly placed in a command or instruction that causes a failure in execution.
Formal languages can be grouped into classes known as the Chomsky Hierarchy. How many ways can the classes be characterized? 2
What is the following model performing? Read A Read B Sum := A+B Write Sum Write Sum/2 Summation and division of two items
What does DFA stand for in referencing programming? Deterministic finite automation
What kind of parser is produced by Yacc/Bison? LALR
What is binding time? The time at which a name is associated with a particular object and the time at which an answer is associated with any open question in language or program.
A top-down parser constructs a parse tree starting from the roots and proceeding in a left-to-right depth-first traversal? True
What determines whether an object is allocated statically, on the stack or in a heap? The object lifetime
What are object and information commonly found in a stack frame? Prologue, Epilogue and Calling Sequence
What is a frame pointer? A pointer used by a compiler for a particular register that always points to a know location
What is a calling sequence? The code executed by the caller immediately before and after the call and of the prologue and epilogue of the subroutine itself.
External Fragmentation is where data is allocates a block that is longer than needed; Internal fragmentation is when the block tha have been assigned to an object are scattered through the heap False
What is garbage collection? The process in which a mechanism identifies and reclaims unreachable objects
What is an issue that created by improper or absent garbage collection? Memory Leaks
What is a dangling reference? The deallocation of an object to soon
What is elaboration? The process by which declaration become active when control first enters a scope
What is a static chain? When a frame's static links, and those of its parents, grandparents, and so on are nested many levels deep.
Created by: wezitar