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Drugs

TermDefinition
acyclovir Antiviral - inhibits DNA synthesis in herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) - used prophylactically - rapidly absorbed by infected cells
amantadine -blocks viral penetration/uncoating (by targeting M2 protein) - blocks INFLUENZA A - reduces severity of symptoms
zidovudine - an antiviral drug (trade name Retrovir) used in the treatment of AIDS - blocks DNA synthesis
interferon Antiviral - soluble glycoproteins produced by cells infected with viruses, chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and protozoa (e.g., malaria) - inhibit virus production within the cells and mark infected cells to be destroyed by T cells
penicillin Beta-Lactam *** - Kills by INHIBITION of cell wall synthesis - "house and garage" - bactericidal - used prophalactically - 1950's first semisynthetic - methicillin
cephalosporin Beta-Lactam - Kills by inhibition of cell wall synthesis - "house, garage, basement" - secondary drug - broad spectrum - allergies can carry over from penicillin allergy
aminoglycoside - produced from streptomyces and micrimonospora - Kills by interfering with mRNA translation (protein synthesis) - broad spectrum - bacteriostatic - synergistic to treat TB, plague, bone infections, peritonitis, pelvic abscesses, nosocomial infections
tetracycline - produced from streptomyces - Kills by interfering with mRNA translation (protein synthesis) - bacteriostatic - WIDEST spectrum of any drug - treats typhus, chlamydial, mycoplasmal, and spirochete infections (lyme disease) - mild to severe side effe
chloramphenicol - produced from streptomyces venezuelae - Kills by interfering with mRNA translation (protein synthesis) - bacteriostatic - broad spectrum - treats typhoid, penicillin resistant strains of meningococci and haemophilus influenza, brain abscesses, ricke
erythromycin *** - Kills by interfering with mRNA translation (protein synthesis) - bacteriostatic - treats streptococci, pneumococci, mycoplasma, chlamydia - LEAST TOXIC
vancomycin - produced by streptomyces - Kills by interfering with mRNA translation (protein synthesis) - treats MRSA and enterococci - severe side effects (kidney damage, deafness)
rifampin - Kills by blocking RNA transcription - bactericidal - Broad spectrum - treats TB, nisseria meningococci - may cause liver damage
polymyxin *** - produced from bacillus - Kills by disrupting the cell wall synthesis - topical for gram negative - serious side effects when used internally (numbness, kidney damage, respiratory arrest)
sulfonamide *** - acts as a COMPETITIVE INHIBITOR of enzymes - bacteriostatic - treat UTI's - effective against GRAM NEGATIVES - often cause allergic reactions
isoniazid - an organic compound that is the first-line medication in prevention and treatment of tuberculosis - Kills by interfering with maetabolite synthesis (mycolic acid) - synergistic with rifampin
amphotericin B *** - produced from streptomyces nodosus - Kills by disrupting the cell membrane and causes LEAKAGE - used to treat SYSTEMIC fungal infections - SEVERE side effects (kidney damage, blindness)
griseofulvin - Kills by interfering with microtubule function, inhibiting MITOSIS - used orally to treat hair, nail or skin fungal infections - mild side effects
imidazole (triazoles) - Kills by affecting fungal plasma membranes by disrupting membrane STEROLS - OTC topical medication - treats candida yeast infections and fungal skin infections - antagonistic with antihistamines and immunosuppressive drugs
quinine - used to treat drug resistant malaria
chloroquine (primaquine) - interferes with protein synthesis inside RBC's - used prophylactally to protect against MALARIA
metronidazole (flagyl) - Kills by interfering with enzyme activity - treats Trichomonas and Giardia lamblia infections - causes birth defects - side effect - black hairy tongue
methendazole - kills by blocking uptake of glucose to parasitic roundworms - antihelminth - treats whipworm, pinworms, and hookworm - primary treatment
niclosamide - kills by interfering with carbohydrate metabolism - secondary treatment to methendazole - parasite releases large amounts of lactic acid
ciprofloxacin QUINOLONE *** - kills by interfering with DNA replication - broad spectrum (gram pos and gram neg) - treats UTI, abdominal infections, respiratory and gastrointestinal - used when the exact culprit is unkown - mild to moderate side effects
Created by: dlit