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Micro1 Test2b

Practice test for Microbiology 1, test 2, after Review Topics sent, for DelTech

QuestionAnswer
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) requires energy? active
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) is involved in endocytosis? active
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) is involved in osmosis? passive
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) goes "down the gradient?" passive
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) is involved in solute pumping? active
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) is involved in diffusion? passive
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) is involved in exocytosis? active
Which kind of membrane transport (active or passive) requires no energy? passive
Exocytosis is the __ of endocytosis. opposite
What is pinocytosis? enveloping of a liquid
What actions taken by chlorine and iodine kill microbes? alters protein structure
What 3 actions taken by phenolics kill microbes? 1. disrupt cell membranes + walls 2. precipitate proteins 3. inactivate enzymes
What actions taken by chlorhexidine kill microbes? targets membranes + protein structure
What actions taken by alcohol kill microbes? dissolves membrane lipids and coagulates proteins
What concentration of alcohol is ideal when using as an antiseptic? 70%
What concentration of alcohol works best when using it as a disinfectant? 50%
Hydrogen peroxide is __ to microbes. toxic
It's better to use hydrogen peroxide on inanimate object than on __ __ unless the site is dirty. open wounds
What 3 actions taken by aldehydes kill microbes? 1. link to nucleic acids and amino acids 2. membrane protein crosslinking 3. disrupt enzyme activity
How do antimicrobial gases affect microbes? Target DNA and protein structures
How do detergents affect microbes? By disrupting cell membranes
How do soaps affect microbes? Degerming - they remove the microbes
How do heavy metal compounds, like zinc, affect microbes? Inactivating cell proteins
Iodine acts by inhibiting protein function of microbes. But what kinds of microbes is it effective against? bacteria, fungi, some viruses, many endospores
In what 2 ways is iodine available? 1. tincture 2. iodophor
A tincture of iodine is a mix of iodine and ? alcohol
An iodophor of iodine is a mix of iodine and ? an organic molecule that releases the iodine slowly
What is the main use of iodine? skin disinfectant and wound treatment
If you are allergic to __, you might be allergic to iodine. fish (shrimp and shellfish don't count)
What 2 chemical agents are considered to be halogens? iodine and chlorine
What are the 3 kinds of chlorine compounds in use? 1. calcium hypochlorite 2. sodium hypochlorite 3. chloramines
Which is the strongest chlorine compound? calcium hypochlorite
Calcium hypochlorite is used to disinfect what 3 things? 1. dairies 2. slaughterhouses 3. eating utensils
Which kind of hypochlorite is used with bleach in the home? sodium hypochlorite
Which kind of chloride is used with ammonia in municipal water systems? chloramines
Who first used phenol (carbolic acid) to sterilize hands and instruments before surgery? Joseph Lister
Who is the father of chemotherapy? Paul Ehrlich
Who discovered penicillin? Alexander Fleming
Who discovered Salvarsan, the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis? Paul Ehrlich
What class of antimicrobial agents is derived from phenol? phenolics
How do phenolics affect microbes (3 ways)? 1. damages plasma membranes 2. inactivates enzymes 3. denatures proteins
Phenolics are suitable for disinfecting body excretions, like ? feces, pus, saliva
What is the main ingredient in Lysol? O-phenylphenol
What phenolic antimicrobial agent is effective against Strep and Staph infections? hexachlorophene
What coefficient is used to measure the effectiveness of disinfectants? phenol coefficient
Alchohols kill bacteria and fungi, but are ineffective against ? endospores and nonenveloped viruses
Why shouldn't alcohols be used on wounds? They cause a layer of protein to coagulate in the wound. Bacteria can grow under this layer.
The group of antimicrobial agents called surfactants includes ? soap and detergents
Some soaps and detergents have additives like __ that strongly inhibit gram + bacteria. triclocarban
What 4 heavy metals can be germicidal or even antiseptic? silver, copper, mercury, zinc
A 1% solution of __ __ (metal) is bacterialcidal for most organisms. silver nitrate
1% silver nitrate is used for __ eye infections in newborns. gonorrheal
Copper sulfate is used to destroy ? algae
If mercuric chloride (also called mercure chrome) is washed away, bacteria will resume ? growing
__ __ is a common ingredient in mouth washes. Zinc chloride
__ __ is used as an antifungal in paints. Zinc oxide
Aldehydes like formaldehyde are carcinogenic and used for __ corpses. embalming
Gluteraldehyde is bactericidal and virucidal in __ mins. 10
Gluteraldehyde is sporicidal after how long an exposure? 3-10 hours
What gaseous chemosterilizer is used in gas chambers? ethylene oxide
Gaseous chemosterilizers work by __ cell proteins. denaturing
Gaseous chemosterilizers kill all __ and __. microbes and endospores
What kind of organic acid inhibits mold growth in acidic foods like cheese? sorbic acid
What kind of organic acid works as an antifungal, is effective at low pH levels, and is widely used in soft drinks? Benzoic acid
Why are parabens (a class of organic acid derivatives) used in cosmetics and shampoos? they inhibit mold growth
Parabens are derivatives of a specific organic acid, but parabens work at a neutral pH. What are they derived from? Benzoic acid
What kind of relationship between 2 organisms is obligatory dependent, where both members benefit? mutualism
If one organism depends upon another and benefits, while the other organism is not harmed, this is called ? commensalism
A relationship between 2 organisms where neither member benefits or is harmed is called ? neutralism
When one organism depends on the other while also harming that other organism, this is called ? parasitism
A nonsymbiotic relationship where organisms cooperate and share nutrients is called ? synergism
A nonsymbiotic relationship where organisms try to inhibit or destroy one another is called ? antagonism
Barnacles on a whale is what kind of relationship? commensal
When a wasp lays its eggs in a caterpillar so the babies can devour the caterpillar, what kind of relationship is this? parasitic
When bacteria in a petri dish produce penicillin to destroy another colony of bacteria in the same dish, this is an example of ? antagonism
When saprophytes (like mushrooms) and bacteria break down dead leaves in the same forest, this is an example of ? synergism
When a honeybee drinks from a flower and spreads its pollen after it leaves, this is what kind of relationship? mutualism
Demodex mites in human hair do not harm us. But the mites benefit. What kind of relationship is this? commensal
When you remove/destroy ALL viable microbes and endospores, this is called ? sterilization
When you remove pathogens ONLY from a nonliving surface but risk leaving endospores behind, this is called ? disinfection
When you remove pathogens ONLY from living tissues but risk leaving endospores behind, this is called ? antisepsis
When microbes, toxins, and debris are reduced to a level that is safe for the public, this is called ? sanitation
When a chemical agent inhibits the growth of bacteria but does not kill them, the chemical is ? bacteriostatic
If a bacteriostatic agent is removed from a surface, what will happen to the bacteria present there? growth resumes
The absence of pathogens from an object or area is a condition known as ? asepsis
Techniques designed to prevent entry of pathogens into the body are known as ? aseptic techniques
An aseptic technique designed to exclude all microbes is known as ? surgical asepsis
An aseptic technique designed to exclude microbes associated with communicable diseases is called ? medical asepsis
What 6 methods are employed by hospitals to achieve asepsis? 1. air filtration 2. UV light 3. masks 4. gloves 5. gowns 6. instrument sterilization
The removal of transient microbes from skin by mechanical cleansing or use of an antiseptic is called ? degerming
The reduction of pathogens on eating utensils to safe levels by mechanical or chemical cleansing is called ? santization
What temperature must a bacti incinerator reach to be effective? 974F
Hydrogen peroxide is an __ agent. oxidizing
QUATS is short for ? Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
What will QUATS kill? bacteria, fungi, amoeba, enveloped viruses
What are QUATS ineffective against? endospores and tuberculosis bacteria
What's the name of 2 QUATS? Zephiran and Cepacol
Aside from TB, what's another pathogen that can survive QUATS exposure and even grow during exposure? Pseudomonas
What can interfere with QUATS? organic matter
What part of the cell does penicillin target? peptidoglycan in cell wall
Penicillin works better on gram __ microbes. positive
Name 4 antimicrobial agents that work by affecting cell wall synthesis? 1. penicillin 2. bacitracin 3. vancomycin 4. cephalosporin
Name 2 antibiotics that inhibit replication and transcription? quinolones and rifampin
Sulfanilamide inhibits synthesis of ? essential metabolites
Pretty much all sulfa- and sulfi- drugs work by competitive __. inhibition
Sulfanilamide blocks the enzyme that converts __ to folic acid. PABA
Name 5 drugs that inhibit protein synthesis. 1. tetracycline 2. erythromycin 3. streptomycin 4. chloramphenicol 5. gentamycin
Immunoglycocides can selectively inhibit formation protein synthesis in __ cells while leaving our cells unaffected. prokaryotic
Name 4 drugs that can increase permeability of the plasma membrane of pathogens, damaging them in the process. They are especially effective against gram negative bacteria. 1. polymyxin B. 2. nystatin 3. amphotericin B. 4. miconazole
Large doses of penicillin can be toxic to _, __, and __. kidneys, liver, central nervous system
Name 2 semisynthetic penicillins. ampicillin and amoxicillin
Another class of antibiotic closely related to penicillin is called ? cephalosporins
Some bacteria are resistant to penicillin and cephalosporins because they can secrete an enzyme that breaks down the drugs. What is the enzyme? Beta-lactamase
Aminoglycosides are bacteri- ? ostatic
Tetracyclines have the __ spectrum of activity of any class of antibiotics. widest
Chloramphenicol is bacteri- ? ostatic
Rifampin is bacteri- ? cidal
Sulfanomides are bacteri- ? ostatic
Sulfanomides are especially effective against gram __ bacteria of the intestinal tract and UTI infections. negative
Name 4 types of antifungal agents. 1. amphotericin B 2. Griseofulvin 3. imidazoles 4. triazoles
Amphotericin B binds to __ found in fungi, algae, and protozoans. sterols
Name 4 infections that are affected by erythromycin. 1. streptococci 2. pneumococci 3. Mycoplasma 4. Chlamydia
All penicillins have a common nucleus which includes what structures? 1. thiazolidine ring 2. Beta-lactam ring
Metronidazole (trade name is Flagyl) is an __, __, and __. antibiotic, amebicide, and antiprotozoal
Ciprofloxacin works by killing bacteria or preventing their __. growth
Polymyxin B alters the __ of bacterial outer membranes. permeability
Polymyxin B is used on skin infections caused by gram __ bacteria. negative
What kind of chemical antimicrobial agent disrupts plasma membranes and denatures proteins? Phenols, alcohols
What kind of chemical antimicrobial agents disrupt plasma membranes? Include agents that do other things to microbes too. Phenols, alcohols, biguanides, surfactants
What kind of chemical antimicrobial agents denature proteins? Include agents that do other things to microbes too. Phenols, alcohols, heavy metals, aldehydes, ethylene oxide
What kind of chemical antimicrobial agents oxidize cellular components? Halogens, peroxigens
Where are phenols generally used? Disinfectants like Lysol, antibacterial soaps and plastics
What are biguanides primarily used for? Skin disinfectant
What are halogens generally used for ? Water sanitation, disinfecting eating utensils and equipment, antiseptics
What are alcohols generally used for (Hint: Not the fun kind of alcohols)? Degerming, disinfect small instruments
What are heavy metals generally used for when it comes to antimicrobials? On bandages and catheters
What are surfactants generally used for? Degermind skin, antiseptics, disinfect instruments and utensils
What are aldehydes generally used for? Sterilize and disinfect equipment, embalming
What is ethylene oxide generally used for? Sterilize plastic medial equipment
What are peroxigens generally used for? Water sanitation, cleaning deep wounds of oxygen sensitive organisms
What class of chemical agents can kill endospores? aldehydes
Antibiotic aminoglycosides like streptomycin inhibit __ __. protein synthesis
Antibiotic C-Glycosides like vancomycin inhibit __ __ __. cell wall synthesis
Antibiotic ansamycins like Rifampin inhibit __ __. mRNA synthesis
Antibiotic tetracyclines like tetracycline inhibit __ __. protein synthesis
Antibiotic Beta-lactams like penicillin inhibit __ __ __. cell wall synthesis
Antibiotic peptides like bacitracin inhibit __ __ __. cell wall synthesis
Antibiotic fluoro-4-quinolones like Ciprofloxacin inhibit __ __. DNA synthesis
Antibiotic macrolides like erythromycin inhibit __ __. protein synthesis
Antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis generally target prokaryotic __. ribosomes
Polymyxin B disrupts __ __. bacterial membranes
Name the narrow spectrum antibiotics. 1. Erythromycin 2. Penicillin
Most narrow spectrum antibiotics are most effective against gram __ bacteria. positive
Sulfa drugs inhibit __ __. enzyme activity
Amphotericin B disrupts a cell's __ __ by binding to phospholipids. bacterial membranes
Created by: IsaacJ