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BMS 300- Unit 2

QuestionAnswer
phineas gage rod through head; -> philosophical change of soul vs. brain
three types of energy electromagnetic; mechanical; chemical
what is the oldest sense? olfaction (does not go through thalamus)
integration is the CNS (brain and spinal cord)
nerve a collection of neuronal processes in the peripheral NS
grey matter neuronal cell bodies and dendrites
white matter connectivity (myelinated axons)
the cerebrum is made of white matter
the cortex is made of grey matter
nerve collection/bundle of neuronal processes in the central nervous system
how many pairs of spinal nerves 31
how many pairs of cranial nerves 12
how many layers of cells in the cortex 6
ganglion collection of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS
neuronal doctrine the neuron is the fundamental structural and functional unit for the NS
two pools of thought before electron microscope reticularists (all neurons connected) cellularists (each cell is a separate entity)
glial cells (and types) regulate the environment of neurons (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia)
astrocyte keeps ion concentrations in narrow ranges; removes NT from synapse and returns it to neuron in its precursor (glutamate-> glutamine)
oligodendrocyte glial cells in the CNS that create white matter (myelinate axons)
microglia macrophages (immune cells) of the nervous system -> release bleach and hydrogen peroxide
ALS (Lou Guerig's disease) mutation in microglia that kills neurons
Schwann cells in PNS -> same functions as astrocytes AND oligodendrocytes (*can regrow)
oligodendrocytes and regrowth stops neuronal growth to prevent overgrowth
stretch activated channels creates a generator potential- which then creates an action potential
how are differences in stimulus propagated higher frequency of APs-> creates larger amplitude of depolarization
vagus stuff acetylcholine (slows heart rate)
trigger zone Na+ gated channels on the axon- EPSPs must reach this and get to threshold
summation of EPSPs (2) spatial summation, temporal summation (20 msec)
Ohm's law voltage= resistance * current (resistance= ions moving per second)
diseases due to inhibition problems tetanus; seizures
tetanus bacterial toxin destroys a protein responsible for allowing the release of inhibition neurotransmitter
botulism destroys the protein responsible for allowing the release of excitatory neurotransmitter
EPSP is always less than action potential (single EPSPs)
somatosensory system: 2 components spinothalamic tract; dorsal column medial lemniscus
Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscus fine touch, proprioception (stretch receptors- where you are in space) *crosses over in brain stem
Spinothalamic Tract pain, temperature, crude touch (pressure) *crosses over in spinal cord
Brown Sequard Syndrome cut one side of spinal cord-> no fine touch on that side, but no pain/temp/pressure on the other side
which neuron switches sides in the somatosensory system? 2nd order (for both spinothalamic and DCML)
gyrus tops of folds
sulcus/fissure folds
body map on somatosensory cortex there is a body map (large for hands and face)
Places between somatosensory and motor cortices SSC-> association cortex -> frontal lobe -> motor cortex
striatum regulates movements (responsible for Parkinson's)
pre central gyrus primary motor cortex; frontal lobe
post central gyrus somatosensory cortex; parietal lobe
motor unit a lower motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates
fewer fibers per motor unit fine tuning (extraocular eye muscles, hands)
more fibers per motor unit coarse tuning (back muscles)
ALS (not the disease) aka spinothalamic tract
glutamate excitatory (like Ach)
glycine inhibitory (like GABA)
muscle relaxation normally occurs because Ca2+ leaves the troponin and is returned to the SR via a pump (that requires ATP)
in the CNS, the amplitude of postsynaptic potential is.... graded w/ the number of ligand gated ionotropic channels that open
increase extracellular K+... membrane will depolarize (+++ flows in)
post synaptic response primarily dictates by the receptor that binds the neurotransmitter
conductile region on lower motor neuron, amplitude of AP all or none, always same amplitude
PNS conductile region bundles nerves
ligand gated ionotropic channels are opened by neurotransmitter molecules binding specifically to a receptor
decrease in membrane resistance need more EPSPs, shorter time period, decrease EPSP amplitude
tract conductile region in the CENTRAL nervous system
nucleus collection of cell bodies in CNS
Created by: melaniebeale