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Microbiology1 Test2

Practice for Microbiology 1 test on microorganisms at DelTech Owens

All things need __ __ to live. essential nutrients
What are the 11 essential elements? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, potassium, iron, nitogen, sulfur, magnesium, iodine, sodium chloride (CHOPKINS MIS - K for potassium)
Organisms with special nutritional requirements are called ? fastidious
Is water a nutrient? yes
Nutrients are essential __ factors. growth
What 4 things are needed to produce other essential molecules? Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids
Microbes grow by __, not by increases in size. replication or multiplication
Organisms that use sunlight for energy to synthesize nutrients, like algae, plants, and cyanobacteria, are called ? photoautotrophs
Organisms that use simple inorganic chemicals for energy to make nutrients, like methanogens and deep-sea vent bacteria, are called ? chemoautotrophs
Organisms that take in organic chemicals from other sources are called ? heterotrophs
Most heterotrophs are also (what kind of trophs)? chemotrophs
Organisms that convert nutrients obtained from other organisms into food, like protozoa, fungi, animals, and many bacteria, are called ? chemoheterotrophs
Decomposers that metabolize the organic matter of dead organisms (fungi and bacteria are 2 examples) are called ? saprobes of saprophiles
Organisms that make energy from light but get their carbons from organic substances are called ? photoheterotrophs
An organism that gets its energy from light but it's nutrients from the air is called an ? autotroph
Organisms that use sunlight or organic matter for energy are called ? photohemotrophs
Organisms that use the tissues and fluids of living hosts are called ? parasites
Lab media that supports the growth of most nonfastidious organisms is called ? nonselective media
Lab media that has extra nutrients to support cultures of microorganisms is called ? enriched media
Lab media that demonstrates the differences between several populations of microorganisms is called ? differential media
Lab media that encourages some microorganisms to grow while it inhibits others is called ? selective media
A broth used in a lab that is designed for specific populations is called ? enrichment media
Name something that active membrane transport requires but that passive membrane transport does not. energy
Passive membrane transport is a process that moves __ the gradient. down
Passive membrane transport is a process that goes from __ concentration to __ concentration. from high to low
Diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion are examples of what type of membrane transport? passive
The tendency of a fluid (usually water) to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher so that it equalizes the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane is called ? osmosis
Active membrane transport moves up the gradient, going from __ concentration to __ concentration. from low to high
Endocytosis, exocytosis, and solute pumping are examples of what kind of membrane transport? active
Movement into cells, movement into or out of a nucleus, mitochondria, or endoplasmic reticulum, are all examples of what kind of diffusion? facilitated
The major source of energy for cellular reactions, this nucleotide is found in the mitochondria of all plant and animal cells. What is it? ATP
When small molecules go through the carrier proteins in the cell membrane, this is called ? active transport
When the cell membrane surrounds large molecules that are too big to go through its lipid bilayer and forms a vesicle that travels through the cytoplasm, this is called ? bulk transport
A form of active transport that allows a molecule that cannot cross the lipid bilayer to enter the cell by way of a protein channel. What is it? solute pumping
Solute pumping is a form of __ transport because it requires ATP to allow the molecule to pass through its membrane. active
ATP moves substances __ concentration gradients. against
What kind of organism requires 20% oxygen in the atmosphere to live? obligate aerobes
What kind of organism requires less oxygen than is found in normal air? Between 1-15%? microaerophilic aerobes
What kind of organism prefers and anaeroeic (non oxygen) environment but can live in an atmosphere with as much as 20% oxygen? facultative anaerobes
What kind of organism can remain in an oxygen environment for a short time before dying? aerotolerant anaerobes
What kind of organism grows best in the presence of 3-10% carbon dioxide? capnophilic organisms
Thermophiles grow best in __ temperatures. high
Mesophiles grow best at __ temperatures. moderate
Psychophiles grow best at __ temperatures. cold
What pH range do most microorganisms prefer to live in? 7-7.4
What pH do acidophiles prefer to live in? 2-5
What pH do alkaliphiles prefer to live in? 8.5
Organisms that prefer salty environments are called ? halophilic
Organisms that can survive in salty environments but that don't prefer them are called ? haloduric
Name one example of a haloduric organism. Staphylococcus aureus
Mircoorganisms that can survive under high atmospheric pressure are called ? barophiles or piezophiles
Barophiles can survive in atmospheric pressures exceeding __ psi. 14.7
Bacteria multiply through __ __, or the splitting into 2 or more parts. binary fission
What do you call the time needed for a bacteria to split, or multiply? generation time
Bacteria double their numbers with each generation. 1 becomes 2, 2 becomes 4, etc. This means that their growth is __. exponential
Escherichia coli has a generation time of __ mins. 20
The phase of bacterial growth where the organisms are just getting acclimated to their environments is called ? lag phase
The phase of bacterial growth where the organisms begin growing quickly while there is plenty of nutrients and space is called ? log phase or logarithmic growth phase
The phase of bacterial growth where growth rates begin to level off as nutrients are depleted and waste builds up is called ? stationary phase
The phase of bacterial growth where microorganisms die off because nutrients are being used up and waste is building up is called ? death phase
Cold can __ microbial growth. slow
A symbiotic relationship where both members benefit is called ? mutualism
A symbiotic relationship where one member benefits, but the other is not harmed, is called ? commensalism
A symbiotic relationship where one member is dependent on another and usually harms the other (or the host) is called ? parasitism
A symbiotic relationship where neither member benefits or is harmed is called ? neutralism
A NONsymbiotic relationship where both members cooperate and share nutrients is called ? synergism
A NONsymbiotic relationship where some members are inhibited or destroyed by others is called ? antagonism
Fastidious organisms have special __ requirements. nutritional
Photoautotrophs use __ for energy to synthesize nutrients. sunlight
Chemoautotrophs use __ __ __ for energy to make nutrients. simple inorganic chemicals
Heterotrophs are organisms that take in __ __ from other sources. organic chemicals
Chemoheterotrophs are organisms that get __ obtained from other sources. nutrients
Saprobes (also called saprophiles) are organisms that metabolize the organic matter of ? dead organisms
Photoheterotrophs are organisms that make energy from light but get their carbons from ? organic substances
Nonselective media supports the growth of most __ organisms. nonfastidious
Enriched media has extra __ to support cultures of microorganisms. nutrients
Differential media demonstrates the differences between several __ of microorganisms. populations
Selective media encourages some microorganisms to grow while __ others. inhibiting
Obligate anaerobes require __% oxygen in the atmosphere to live. 20%
Microaerophilic microbes need what range of oxygen in the atmosphere to survive? 1-15%
Facultative anaerobes prefer anaeroebic (non oxygen) environments but can live in an atmosphere with as much as __ oxygen if needed. 20%
Capnophilic organisms grows best in the presence of __ carbon dioxide. 3-10%
Halophilic organisms prefer __ environments. salty
Haloduric organisms can withstand this in their environment, but grow better without it. salt
Barophiles or piezophiles prefer environments with high __ __. barometric pressure
On the growth curve, bacteria start out during the __ phase as they acclimate to their environment. lag
On the growth curve, bacteria enter the __ phase as they begin to multiply exponentially. log or logarithmic growth phase
On the growth curve, bacterial growth begins to level off during the __ phase. stationary
On the growth curve, waste buildup and depletion of nutrients causes bacteria populations to enter the __ phase. death
Whales and barnacles are examples of what kind of symbiotic relationship? commensalism
When a wasp lays its eggs in a caterpillar, which will lead to the caterpillar's death, this is an example of what kind of relationship? parasitic
Mushrooms are saprophites that break down dead things. Their relationship with some kinds of plants is ? synergistic
When some members of a relationship are inhibited or destroyed by others, this is a nonsymbiotic relationship called ? antagonism
What sort of relationship exists between humans and the demodex mites that live in our hair follicles? commensalism
Antibiotics formed in a petri dish by microbes that are competing with other microbes for nutrients are an example of what kind of relationship? antagonistic
Sterilization is a process where all viable microbes and endospores are ? destroyed
Disinfection is a process where only __ microbes are removed from nonliving surfaces. Endospores could remain. pathogenic
Antisepsis is the chemical removal of pathogenic microbes from __ __. living tissues
When microbes, toxins, and debris are reduced to a level deemed safe for public health, this is known as ? sanitation
If it ends in -cidal, it does what to microbes? kills
If it ends in -static, it does what to microbes? inhibits growth
What procedure have we performed in hematology and immunology that uses several techniques to protect the patient and us from infection? blood draw
Sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, and sanitization are all techniques used in ? decontamination
A bacteriostatic agent only __ bacterial growth without killing the bacteria. inhibits
Refrigeration and food dyes are __ ways of inhibiting bacertial growth. bacteriostatic
A technique that removes all pathogens from an object or area is called ? aseptic
Surgical asepsis removes __ microbes. all
Medical asepsis is designed to exclude microbes associated with __ disease. communicable
What are 6 examples of things that help provide an aseptic environment in hospitals? 1. air filtration 2. UV lights 3. masks 4. gloves 5. gowns/lab coats 6. instrument sterilization
The absence of all pathogens from a place or object is called ? asepsis
The removal of transient microbes from the skin by mechanical or antiseptic means is called ? degerming
The reduction of pathogens on eating utensils to levels safe for the general public is called ? sanitization
Physical means of microbial controls include what 3 things? 1. temperature 2. radiation 3. drying
Chemical means of inhibiting microbial growth include what 3 states of matter? 1. gases 2. liquids 3. solids
The number of microbes that need to be removed from an object is called ? bioburden
The effectiveness of control agents can be measured by what 7 factors? 1. bioburden 2. time 3. temp 4. pH 5. concentration, dosage, or intensity 6. mode of action 6. interfering substances (organic matter, solvents, inhibitors)
Many disinfectants work better in __ temperatures. warm
Disinfectants and antiseptics tend to have a greater effect on gram __ bacteria. positive
Pseudomonas is highly __ to chemical activity. resistant
A slimy, complex community of microbes that help each other to live and form in catheters is called ? biofilm
Some members of biofilms secrete __ that protect the entire collective from chemicals. enzymes
Microbes are harder to kill when they are __, though their growth will be inhibited in this state. dormant
Some disinfectants works best at an __ pH. acidic or low
Pseudomonas is so resistant to chemicals, it will actually __ in some disinfectants and antiseptics. grow
__ __ in vomit and feces can affect which disinfectant is used to clean them. Organic matter
You refrigerator should be below what temperature? 40F
Microbes that have formed __ are usually more resistant than vegetative cells. endospores
Clostridium botulinum spores can withstand __ for several hours. boiling
Don't forget to __ bacterial names if asked on a test. underline
Name 4 conditions that have to be considered when deciding which microbial control chemical to use. 1. Temperature 2. Types of microbes 3. Physiological state of the microbe 4. Environment
Inhibitors can __ pathogens from binding with healthy cells. block or prevent
__ mins in an autoclave will kill most things. 15
The time it takes at a set temperature to kill an organism is its __ __. death time
The lowest temperature needed to kill a microbe in 10 mins is its __ __. death point
Boiling __ kills most fungi, bacteria, and viruses in 10 mins. water
What are the 4 modes of action? 1. Target cell wall 2. Target cell membrane 3. Protein/nucleic acid synthesis 4. Protein function
Boiling water will not kill __. endospores
What can slow microbial growth without killing the microbes? cold
Pasteurization does not work on __. solids
Death point is the __ required to kill a microbe in 10 mins. temperature
Death time is the time it takes to kill a microbe at a __ __. set temperature
A bacti incinerator and a dry oven are both forms of __ that can kill microbes. dry heat
Steam under __ is a form of moist heat that can kill microbes. pressure
Beside steam under pressure, what kind of steam can kill microbes? nonpressurized steam
Gamma rays, X-rays, and high speed electrons are all types of __ radiation that can kill things. ionizing
What are 3 effects of exposure to ionizing radiation? 1. DNA mutations 2. chemical changes 3. toxic substances produced
Ultraviolet light is a form of __ radiation that can kill things. nonionizing
You don't want too much __ exposure to UV light. direct
The effectiveness of mechanical filtration techniques is dependent on __ __. pore size
The smaller the pore, the __ the filtration. better
Some disinfectants need to leave a __ to work. residue
What 2 things impact the effectiveness of disinfectants? 1. contact time 2. penetration
What 7 things must be considered when choosing a chemical agent of control? 1. inexpensive 2. simple directions 3. stable for storage 4. penetration 5. control in reasonable time & concentration 6. nontoxic, noncorrosive, nonoffensive 7. water or alcohol soluble/easy to apply
How do chlorine and iodine control or kill microbes? alter protein structure
What are the 3 ways that phenolics control or kill microbes? 1. disrupt cell membranes/wall 2. precipitate proteins 3. inactivate enzymes
How does chlorhexidine control or kill microbes? it targets membranes/protein structure
How do 50%-95% alcohol solutions kill or control microbes? dissolve membrane lipids and denature/coagulate proteins
What mixture of alcohol is ideal for use as an antiseptic? 70%
What mixture of alcohol is ideal for use as a disinfectant? 50%
Hydrogen peroxide is __ to microbes. toxic
What kind of chemical agent links to nucleic acids and disrupts enzyme activity? aldehydes
Detergents do what to microbes? disrupt membranes
Soaps __ the bacteria. remove
How do heavy metal compounds affect microbes? inactivate proteins used by enzymes
Iodines are __ that alter the protein structure of microbes. halogens
Iodine is available in what 2 forms? tincture (in alcohol) or iodophor
If someone has an allergy to fish, they may be allergic to ? iodine
What are the 3 chlorine compounds? 1. calcium hypochlorite 2. sodium hypochorite 3. chloramines
Which is the strongest of the 3 chlorine compounds? Calcium hypochlorite
Which of the 3 chlorine compounds is used as a household disinfectant? Sodium hypochorite
What do you call chlorine and ammonia combined? chloramines
What do you call the measure of a disinfectant's effectiveness? phenol coefficient
What is the main ingredient in Lysol? O-phenylphenol
Alchohols kill bacteria and fungi, but not __ or non-enveloped __. endospores, viruses
Alcohol is great for skin surfaces, but is not ideal for treating ? wounds
Alcohol causes coagulation of a layer of protein under which bacteria can ? grow
Hydrogen peroxide is better for cleaning __ __ than open wounds. inanimate objects
A chemical agent that decreases surface tension among molecules of a liquid is called a ? surfactant
Name 2 kinds of surfactants. 1. soap 2. detergent
Deodorant soaps contain __. triclocarban
Triclocarban strongly inhibits gram __ bacteria. positive
QUATS refers to ? quaternary ammonium compounds
QUATS kill everything except ? endospores and tuberculosis bacteria
Surfaces must be __ before QUATS can be effective. clean
Name 4 metals that are germicidal or antiseptic. 1. silver 2. mercury 3. copper 4. zinc
Zinc __ is a common ingredient in mouth washes. chloride
Formaldehyde, or formalin, belongs to a class of antimicrobial chemical agents known as ? aldehydes
Gluteraldehyde is bacterialcidal and virucidal within __ mins of exposure. 10
Gluteraldehyde is sporicidal within how long? 3 to 10 hours
What chemical is used to sterilize closed gas chambers? ethylene oxide
Ethylene oxides works by __ proteins. denaturing
Ethylene oxide is a gaseous chemosterilizer that __ all microbes and endospores. kills
Name 2 acids that are used as preservatives that can control mold growth. 1. sorbic acid 2. benzoic acid
Benzoic acids are effective at a __ pH. low
Parabens are derivatives from benzoic acids that work at a __ pH. neutral
Created by: IsaacJ