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Bio chapter 5-6

Cells control their chemical environment using Energy,Enzymes, and The plasma membrane
Cell-based nanotechnology may be used to power microscopic robots.
the capacity to perform work is Energy
energy of motion is Kinetic energy
stored energy is Potential energy
_____and _______ can transform kinetic energy to potential energy and vice versa Machines and organisms
the principle of _________ is the energy cannot be created or destroyed conservation of energy
is a measure of disorder, or randomness entropy
this is a Type of kinetic energy and Product of all energy conversions Heat
Every energy conversion releases some randomized energy in the form of Heat
store varying amounts of potential energy in the arrangement of their atoms Molecules
Organic compounds are relatively rich in chemical energy
__________ and ___________ engines use the same basic process to make chemical energy do work Living cells and automobile
is the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of fuel molecules that provides energy for cells to do work Cellular respiration
_____ convert about 40% of the energy in food to useful work, such as the contraction of muscles Humans
is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree Celsius A calorie
are kilocalories, equal to 1,000 calories Food Calories
is Released by the breakdown of organic molecules during cellular respiration and used to generate molecules of ATP Chemical energy
what Acts like an energy shuttle, Stores energy obtained from food and Releases it later as needed ATP
what does ATP stand for adenosine triphosphate
what is ATP broken down to ADP and a phosphate group, releasing energy
What is ATP consists of adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups
ATP is recycled from ADP and a phosphate group through cellular respiration
A working muscle cell spends and recycles about 10 million ATP molecules per second
is the total of all chemical reactions in an organism Metabolism
Most metabolic reactions require the assistance of ______proteins that speed up chemical reactions enzymes
what activates the reactants and triggers a chemical reaction. A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell. Activation energy
______ lower the activation energy for chemical reactions Enzymes
EA specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific _______ of the reaction it catalyzes substrate
what is a substrate a specific reactant molecule
The _________ fits to the substrate, and the enzyme changes shape slightly. This interaction is called _______ 1)active site 2)induced fit
______ can prevent metabolic reactions by binding to the active site. Enzyme inhibitors
Some products of a reaction may inhibit the enzyme required for its production this is called feedback regulation
feedback regulation prevents the cell from wasting resources
Many antibiotics work by _______ of disease-causing bacteria. inhibiting enzymes
What is distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs? Only autotrophs can live on nutrients that are entirely inorganic
Cells can harvest the most chemical energy from which of the following? a glucose molecule
Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center want to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles are functioning anaerobically. They can do this by checking for a buildup of lactic acid
Containing or requiring molecular oxygen (O2). aerobic
Lacking or not requiring molecular oxygen (O2). anaerobic
A protein cluster, found in a cellular membrane, that uses the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP from ADP ATP synthase
What provides a port through which hydrogen ions (H1) diffuse. ATP synthase
An organism that makes its own food from inorganic ingredients, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules Autotroph
The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules cellular respiration
The metabolic cycle that is fueled by acetyl CoA formed after glycolysis in cellular respiration. citric acid cycle
An organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants. Consumer
A subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom. electron
A redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred to carrier molecules electron transport
A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; electron transport chain
The anaerobic harvest of food by some cells. fermentation
The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid; the first stage of cellular respiration in all organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid. glycolysis
An organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules from inorganic ingredients and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or their organic products; a consumer or a decomposer in a food chain. Heterotroph
the anaerobic harvest of food by some cells Fermentation
The gain of electrons by a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies oxidation reduction
An electron carrier (a molecule that carries electrons) involved in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. NADH
what carries electrons from glucose and other fuel molecules and deposits them at the top of an electron transport chain NADH
NADH is generated during _______ and ________. glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies reduction. oxidation
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. osmosis
The interaction between a substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme, which changes shape slightly to embrace the substrate and catalyze the reaction. induced fit
a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs large molecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm. phagocytosis
The movement of materials from the external environment into the cytoplasm of a cell via vesicles or vacuoles endocytosis
Everything inside a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell. cytoplasm
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with the greater concentration of solutes. hypertonic
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with the lower concentration of solutes. hypotonic
The control of the gain or loss of water and dissolved solutes in an organism. osmoregulation
The spontaneous movement of particles of any kind down a concentration gradient; that is, movement of particles from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated. diffusion
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane without any input of energy. passive transport
A substance that is dissolved in a liquid (which is called the solvent) to form a solution. solute
Having the same solute concentration as another solution. isotonic
The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches (by means of weak chemical bonds); typically, a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface. active site
A surface in or on which an organism lives. substrate
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal received on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell. signal transduction pathway
Which of the following is not a characteristic of all living organisms? 1)energy utilization 2)complex yet organized 3)composed of multiple cells 4)capable of self-reproduction composed of multiple cells
Which of the following best describes the logic of the scientific method? 1)If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis. 2)If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results. If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science? 1)Theories are hypotheses that have been proved. 2)Hypotheses usually are narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power Hypotheses usually are narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power
Animals depend on plants to convert solar energy to: Chemical energy of sugars Other molecules we consume as food
Uses light energy from the sun to power a chemical process that makes organic molecules. Photosynthesis:
Autotrophs are _______ because ecosystems depend upon them for food producer
Heterotrophs are ______ because they eat plants or other animals. consumers
The ingredients for photosynthesis are _____ and _______ carbon dioxide and water.
CO2 is obtained from the air by a plant’s leaves.
H2O is obtained from he damp soil by a plant’s roots.
Plant and animal cells perform cellular respiration, a chemical process that: Primarily occurs in mitochondria Harvests energy stored in organic molecules Uses oxygen Generates ATP
The waste products of cellular respiration are: CO2 and H2O Used in photosynthesis
true or false only animals perform only cellular respiration. False- Plants perform Photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Cellular respiration is: The main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP
A common fuel molecule for cellular respiration is glucose.
How many ATP can cellular respiration produce for each glucose molecule consumed? 38
True or false During cellular respiration, hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners. True
During cellular respiration Hydrogen and its electrons go from sugar to oxygen, forming water.
Why does electron transfer to oxygen release energy? When electrons move from glucose to oxygen, it is as though the electrons were falling. This “fall” of electrons releases energy during cellular respiration.
true or false Cellular respiration: Is an example of a metabolic pathway, which is a series of chemical reactions in cells True
All of the reactions involved in cellular respiration can be grouped into three main stages: Glycolysis The citric acid cycle Electron transport
Cyanide is a deadly poison that: Binds to one of the protein complexes in the electron transport chain Prevents the passage of electrons to oxygen Stops the production of ATP
In addition to glucose, cellular respiration can “burn”: Diverse types of carbohydrates Fats Proteins
Yeast are a type of microscopic fungus that: Use a different type of fermentation Produce CO2 and ethyl alcohol instead of lactic acid
This type of fermentation, called alcoholic fermentation, is used to produce: Beer Wine Breads
Created by: Hvelez