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Dietary Therapy 1

Professor Easton's Dietary Therapy Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
How is food described in the East? In terms of taste, temperature, channels entered, and its affect on the body's Qi, blood, and vital substances
What is the essence of the Eastern diet? Each person eats according to their constitution, the season and any particular health issues that may be present at the time.
Describe taste/flavor Each element has an associated flavor. Each flavor enters a particular meridian, performs a particular function and can help rebalance bodily functions and substances.
Describe temperature The temperature of a food is not a measurement of heat or cold in degree but rather a measure of its energetic temperature, what affect does it have on the body? Does it warm or cool?
Describe direction Each flavor has an associated direction: up, down, inward, and outward. By promoting a specific direction, the vital substances can be restored to normal movement and function
Describe route of action Flavors enter specific channel systems. This helps us direct therapeutic action and rebalance Qi w/in each system
What are the 5 flavors? Sweet/tian; acrid/Xin; salty/Xian; sour/Suan; Bitter/Ku
What does sweet enter, where does it travel, and in what season is it appropriate? Enters spleen-pancreas and stomach; travels in the flesh, appropriate for all seasons.
What does acrid enter, where does it travel, and in what season is it appropriate? Enters LU/LI, travels in the Qi [out], attunes persons to spring [also important in fall].
What does salty enter, where does it travel, and in what season is it appropriate? Enters KD/UB; travels in the blood [in], attunes persons to winter
What does sour enter, where does it travel, and in what season is it appropriate? Enters LV/GB; travels in the sinews, attunes persons to spring
What does bitter enter, where does it travel, and in what season is it appropriate? Enters HT/SI; travels in the bones [down and in], attunes persons to summer [summer is up and out]
Describe bland and its function Belongs to sweet but does not have the "sweet taste" bland is well, bland in taste and has the function of seeping to drain damp out via urine
Describe astringent and its function Describes a foods' ability to prevent leakage and to hold in vital substances
Describe aromatic and its function Not a taste but a temperature; aromatic functions to penetrate through turbidity reviving the function of either SP or opening the HT orifice
Why are flavors described as yin/yang? Partly determined by the influence each flavor has on our system.
What is the direction of sweet and is it yin/yang? Sweet lifts upward; it is yang
What is the direction of acrid and is it yin/yang? Acrid scatters and disperses outward; it is yang
What is the direction of sour and is it yin/yang? Sour consolidates; it is yin
What is the direction of bitter and is it yin/yang? Bitter consolidates and drains; it is yin
What is the direction of salty and is it yin/yang? Salty draws in, drains down, dissolves, softens; it is yin
What is the direction of bland and is it yin/yang? Bland draws out/seeps and drains; it is yang [subflavor of sweet]
What is the direction of astringent and is it yin/yang? Astringent holds in; it is yin
What is the direction of aromatic and is it yin/yang? Acrid permeates and opens; it is yang [bursts through turbidity]
What is the function of sweet? Harmonizes all other flavors and forms the center of our diet, mildly stimulating and nourishing
How is sweet divided and what do both do? Full sweet and empty sweet; both are moistening and increase moisture
What does full sweet include and what is the action? Includes most meats, legumes, nuts, dairy and starches and considered tonifying; They are used to treat vacuity [in excess will generate damp]
What does empty sweet include and what is the action? Includes most fruits and sweeteners and considered more cleansing [moistening] and cooling, used to treat heat and dryness
What are the properties of sweet? Considered yang flavor. Harmonizes all 5 flavors, has a slowing, relaxing effect yet also mildly stimulates circulation; sweet also moistens the body.
Describe the 2 types of sweet [again] and what they do Tonifying/full sweet: builds tissue and tonifies; Reducing/empty sweet: cleanses and cools
What is the direction of sweet? Warm sweet foods help Qi expand up and out
Define sweet foods Complex carbohydrates i.e. grains, certain vegetables, most fruits, legumes, meats, and many dairy products have a sweet component. Processed grains and sugars have no therapeutic value and most are deleterious to one's health.
What are the therapeutic uses of sweet foods? Complex carbohydrates: build Qi yet relax the body, nerves and brain. Reduces harshness of bitter foods. Retards acute disease Sx
Who is most benefited by sweet foods? Dry, cold, thin, weak, or nervous and scattered persons. Aggressive persons benefit from the relaxing and retarding aspect of sweet foods
What is sweet's effect on organ function? Enters SP-pancreas - builds Qi; Benefits LV, soothes aggression, anger and impatience, calms acute attacks; moistens dry lungs; slows overactive HT-mind
What are cautions/contraindications for sweet? (3) Sluggish, overweight persons should limit sweet use; those w/ damp signs including mucus conditions use sweet sparingly; KD and SP-pancreas Dz, excess sweet damages/weakens bones and causes hair loss
What are the functions of Acrid/Pungent? A yang flavor: expansive, dispersive, out-thrusting and may have a warm or cool temp; strongly stimulate Qi circulation moving it up and out to body's periphery; disperses stagnation and promotes circulation; stimulates digestion and breaks through mucus
Who is most benefited by Acrid foods? Those who are sluggish, dull, lethargic and heavy. Vacuity cold types and those tending toward mucus and damp accumulation also benefit
What is acrid's effect on organ function? (4) Clears LU of mucus conditions [not hot mucus]; stimulates blood circulation and acts as a cardio-tonic; moistens and warms KD; clears obstructions and improve LV Qi coursing function
What are cautions/contraindications for acrid? Dry, windy, nervous thin people should avoid too much pungent food; in Qi diseases like vacuity or constricted Qi; Heat diseases, avoid too many warm acrid foods when heat cond'ns exist; DH Dz should use more cool acrid foods
What are the functions of Salty? Moves inward and downward drawing the action of food toward the center of the body; moistens, softens and detoxifies; counteracts hardening of muscles and glands; regulates moisture balance in the body; stimulates digestive fxn and improves concentration
What are the properties of salty? A yin cooling effect; moves energy downward and inward; has centering, earthly qualities
What is the therapeutic use for salty? Moistens dryness and can purge the bowels; softens hard lumps; improves digestion, improves appetite; benefits abdominal swelling and pain; detoxifies the body; promotes emesis
Who is most benefited by salty foods? Thin, dry, nervous person
What is salty's effect on organ function? (3) Enters the KD: small amounts tonify KD fxn; SP-pancreas: strengthens digestive fxn; HT-Mind: fortifies and improves mental concentration
What are cautions/contraindications for salty? Restrict salt intake w/ damp cond'ns; Overweight, lethargic, or edema cond'ns should us only w/ caution; Restrict in HBP/HTN dz; Restrict in blood Dz's; Excess salt can agitate aggressive people
What are the functions of Sour? Stimulates contraction and absorption; has gathering or astringent affect and is used for leaking/sagging including cond'ns w/ loss of body fluids; counteracts fatty foods, prevents stagnation and benefits digestive absorption; lower intestinal acidity
What are more functions of sour? Blood activator and stagnation eliminator; generally cleansing and detoxifying; excessive intake may cause over contraction and over retention of moisture/damp
What are the properties of sour? Yin flavor; cooling quality; has contracting, gathering, absorbent, astringent effect
What is the therapeutic use of sour? Prevents abnormal leakage of fluids and Qi, firms tissue.
When would one use sour? Incontinence, prolapse, flaccid tissue, diarrhea, excessive sweat, hemorrhage
Who is most benefited by sour foods? Holds together those who are dispersed w/ constantly changing personality
What is sour's effect on organ function? Most active in LV: acts as a solvent for rich, greasy foods; strengthen weak LU: dissolves minerals for assimilation; benefits HT Mind: consolidates scattered mental patterns
What are cautions/contraindications for sour? Those w/ dampness Dz use sparingly; those w/ heaviness of the mind or body; those suffering w/ constipation and constriction use sparingly; those w/ disease in the sinews use sparingly
What are functions of Bitter? Drains and dries as it travels downward through the body. It will improve appetite, stimulate digestion and draw out dampness and heat. Used to reduce excesses and not to be used in cond'ns of cold and/or vacuity.
What are more functions of bitter? Mostly acts on the HT but can also benefit the upper respiratory tract, LV, SP, KD and intestines. Excess bitter can deplete moisture
What are properties of bitter? A yin cooling effect causes contraction and encourages the body's Qi to descend
What are therapeutic uses of bitter? Antipyretic, dries and drains fluid/damp. Certain bitter foods induce/purge bowels
Who is most benefited by sour foods? Yang excess persons; bitter drains damp of slow, overweight, lethargic persons
What is bitter's effect on organ function? HT: clears heat, cleans arteries of mucoid deposits, lowers BP; LV: cools and clears stagnancy; SP-pancreas: drains damp cond'ns; activates BM, increases intestinal muscle contraction; LU: removes phlegm-heat; KD: prevents fluid stagnation/accumulation
What are cautions/contraindications for bitter? Vacuous and cold individuals (yang vacuity) should limit their intake; thin, nervous and dry persons (yin vacuity) should limit; those w/ bone Dz's should not eat much bitter foods
What are functions of bland? It is Yin; seeps in and drains damp (not technically one of the 5 tastes)
To what does astringent refer? A food's ability to stop/prevent leakage (not technically one of the 5 tastes)
How can food be categorized based on temperature and how does this help us? Energetically: hot, warm, neutral, cool, or cold; it helps us to choose foods that are suitable for a person's constitution and to tx cond'ns
What is the general guideline of food temperature and plants that take longer to grow? They tend to be warmer than fast growing foods
What is the general guideline of food temperature and foods with higher water content? High water content foods tend to be cooling
What is the general guideline of food temperature and dried vs fresh foods? Dried foods tend to be more warming than fresh counterparts
What is the general guideline of food temperature and chemical additives? Chemical additives may produce a heat reaction
What is the general guideline of food temperature and longer slower cooking methods? Produce more warming effect than quicker methods
What is the food temperature of raw food? Most cooling
What is the food temperature of steamed food? cool/neutral
What is the food temperature of boiled food? neutral
What is the food temperature of stewed food? warming
What is the food temperature of stir-fried food? warming
What is the food temperature of baked food? more warming
What is the food temperature of deep-fried food? heating
What is the food temperature of roasted food? more heating
What is the food temperature of grilled food? more heating
What is the food temperature of barbecued [smoked] food? most heating [crock pot cooking b/w grilled and BBQ, longer stewing times]
What is the most cooling preparation of food? raw
What is a cool/neutral preparation of food? steamed
What is a neutral preparation of food? boiled
What is a warming preparation of food? (2) stewed, stir-fried
What is a more warming preparation of food? baked
What is a heating preparation of food? deep-fried
What is a more heating preparation of food? (2) roasted, grilled
What is the most heating preparation of food? barbecuing
What is the nature of cooling foods? Direct energy downward and inward; they cool the upper and outer parts of the body first; cool foods slow us down
What is the nature of cold foods? Can drain and purge
What is the nature of warming foods? Move energy upward and outward from the core, warming from inside out; warm foods speed us up
What is the nature of hot foods? Heat us up intensely then cool us down through sweating
Describe route of action pertaining to food. Refers to a food's propensity to specific channels. Flavor determines channel(s) directing effect toward a particular organ
What meridians are entered by almonds, walnuts, and sweet pickles? almonds: LU, walnuts: KD, sweet pickles: SP & LV
Some foods have a specific __________ ______. Give an example. Therapeutic action; a food may tonify a substance/function or reduce influence of a pathological substance or state; almonds counteract phlegm and walnuts tonify yang
What is the flavor that cleanses the LV/GB and what other flavor is also recommended for this time of year? Sour cleanses LV/GB; Acrid also recommended in Spring
What combination creates Summer w/in Spring? Small amounts of sweet w/ acrid [draws Qi out]
What are diet recommendations during Spring? Eat less or fast to cleanse body of winter's heavy foods; diet should also be the lightest of the year
What are food recommendations during Spring? Focus on young plants/sprouts, fresh greens and cereal grasses; salty foods are sinking and should be limited; heavy foods clog the LV and can result in Spring fits and fever
What can too much barley/wheat do and what may be a better option? Very cleansing, can draw toxins out of LV and into the blood and make very, very sick; spirulina or powdered barley grass won't make as sick
List foods of Spring. Honey in mint tea; basil; fennel; marjoram; rosemary; caraway; dill; bay leaf; sprouted legumes; young beets; carrots [bitter, sweet, acrid]
How should food be prepared in the Spring? Simple preparation, more raw and sprouted foods may be eaten; raw and sprouted foods are cleansing and cool; cook food for shorter time at high temperature; stir-fry, lightly steam, saute, minimal simmering, grilling
What flavor belongs to Summer and what meridians does it enter? Bitter; HT/SI
What are food recommendations in Summer? Should reflect the character of Summer, great variety of colorful fruits, vegetables w/ a little pungent or fiery spice [cools body]
What should be done w/ water, minerals and oils in Summer? What is sweated out should be replaced, use little and more water during Summer months [water w/ sour for excessive sweat; acridity w/ damp pt.]
What should not be ingested during Summer and why? Too much cold, icy substances, this weakens digestive fire; take warm [room temp] drinks and showers to cool off
What are diet recommendations during Summer? Focus on raw foods and add dispersing hot and acrid flavors to induce sweat and cool the body. Use caution to not over disperse
List foods of Summer. Apples; watermelon; lemons and limes; mung bean soup or tea [cools and moistens]; salads; sprouts; cayenne; fresh ginger; horseradish; black pepper
How should foods be prepared in Summer? Use more raw and sprouted foods; use less salt and plenty of water during Summer; when cooking use high heat for very short time [leaves more yin in food] i.e. seared; for sauteed, steamed or simmered foods use high heat for short time
What flavor belongs to late summer and to what meridians does it belong? Sweet; SP-pancreas/ST
What are diet recommendations for late summer? Short fasts are recommended during times of transition or single grain and vegetable/fruit fasts; foods are harmonizing and tonifying and represent the center; use simple preparation and avoid strong seasoning
What foods should be avoided in late summer? Cold icy foods should be avoided for weak SP
What can happen to those w/ weak spleens? Tend to experience mental and physical stagnation and fatigue. Dampness can easily accumulate. Simple eating that focuses on warm foods is best [basis of Qing Dan Diet - supplement SP/ST]
What are food recommendations of late summer/inter-season? Grains cooked as congees and soups; carbohydrate rich vegetables; small amounts of pungent/acrid foods; small amounts of animal product
What should be minimized or avoided during late summer and what is another recommendation of late summer/inter-season? Minimize or avoid sprouts, millet, seaweeds, tofu, salt, dairy and vinegar, excess fluids, rich foods; foods must be well chewed. Frequent, small meals are best. Avoid raw and chilled foods
Excess _____ leads to ________; discuss. Excess Sweet leads to Damp; typical American diet reflects many foods that are sweet in flavor and rich/thick in taste. These foods in excess lead to accumulation of damp turbidity that over time cause weight gain, digestive problems & many other maladies
What are the main contributors to dampness? Food that is refined, highly processed or chemically treated; food that is rotten, stale or parasite infested; poor food combining, too many ingredients in a meal [too rich]; late night eating; overeating; eating while distressed or rushed
Excessive intake of what foods contribute to damp? Eggs, dairy; intake of carbohydrates (even whole sources)
What are the best foods to dry dampness? Rye; Amaranth; Corn; adzuki beans; celery; lettuce; pumpkin; scallion; alfalfa; turnip; kohlrabi; white pepper; radishes; white fishes; bitter herbs; micro-algae; **raw goats milk; raw honey
What is autumn a time for, what flavor is associated and what meridians are cleansed? Time of harbest, atime to pull inward and gather; acrid/pungent and used to cleanse and protect the LU/LI (DO NOT overuse)
What are cooking recommendations during autumn? Should involve more time using greater energy i.e. baked, sauteed, roasted, stewed to store Qi for winter
What types of foods are recommended during autumn? Add more sour foods to assist contraction and holding; small amounts of acrid foods are good but bad in excess; moistening foods like salty, dairy and animal products should be increased (esp w/ dryness); bitter aromatic foods w/ caution b/c drying
List foods of autumn. Soy products, barley, millet; pears and apples; white and black fungus [builds Qi, yin]; almonds, pine nuts, peanuts, sesame; eggs and dairy; clams, crab, oysters, pork; rice, malt syrup, honey; acrid foods should be added to protect LU/LI; some sour
How should food be prepared in autumn? Should involve more cooking time using lower heat and less water; baked, sauteed, roasted, stewed, crock pot
What is an additional recommendation for acrid food preparation? Some acrid foods are diminished by cooking; mild steaming preserves some pungency but for full effect should be eaten raw or steeped while some need to be mildly simmered (roots and barks)
What should be done in winter? Emphasize yin principles, receptive, introspective and storing activities, refine the spirit and conserve physical energy
What is a guiding principle when preparing foods during winter? Cool the exterior and warm the body's core
What flavors should be increased as fall progresses to winter? Bitter and salty combined promote sinking and centering and improve storage function. They cool the surface so one notices the cold less
What flavor should be minimized in winter? Pure bitter flavor unless correcting imbalance [pure bitter will drain]
What activities should be done in winter and why? Outdoor exercise acclimates KD/adrenals to cold; stay active to keep spine and joints healthy and flexible; [melatonin is better produced in cool weather/temp]
What winter foods build KD Yang? cloves, fenugreek, fennel, anise, peppercorn; ginger, cinnamon; walnuts, black beans; onion family i.e. chives, garlic, scallion, leeks; quinoa; chicken, lamb, trout, salmon
What winter foods build KD Qi? parsley; wheat berries; sweet rice; rose hips; oyster shell, clam shell; sour raspberries, blackberry leaves
What foods nourish Jing Essence? Micro-algae; fish, liver, kidney, brain, bone marrow, placenta; milk (raw goat is best); clarified butter (ghee); almonds; sea cucumber; royal jelly, dodder seed, black sesame; chestnuts, black soy beans, walnuts; mulberries, raspberries, strawberries
What factors deplete Jing Essence? Stress, fear, insecurity and overwork; too much semen loss, esp in later years; multiple births w/o rebuilding essence b/w; toxins in food and water, intoxicants, heavy metals; excessive sweet flavor; too much dairy protein
What are food preparation tips in winter? Slow cook for longer time using less water; include more dried foods/fruit; dark colored foods are associated w/ water element; some cooling foods like steamed greens & seaweeds help tonify the KD
What are eating tips in winter? Eat warm, hearty soups, whole grains, roasted foods, nuts and winter [root] vegetables
What is a normal occurrence in winter? since winter foods are denser it is part of the natural cycle to gain a bit of weight during winter
What are foods of winter (for Yin building)? Millet, barley; tofu, soy products; beans; wheat germ, sesame; potato; seaweed, algae; sardines, crab, clam; pork, cheese; eggs; roots
What should be done in addition to physical exercise during the winter? Daily meditative practice to drawt he Qi inward and into the Dan Tian to help build KD Qi and Essence
What food is the SP very happy with and what is its flavor? Sweet potato; b/w empty and full sweet - neutral, sweet easy to digest
What taste is associated w/ garlic and what can it do? Hot and pungent [Acrid]; anti-viral, anti-fungal, detoxifies meat and seafood, kills worms, removes stagnant food and stagnant blood, reduces abscess
What tea should be made w/ a WC; a WH? Ginger should be steeped at beginning of WC; Peppermint tea (very strong) w/ a WH
What is the nature/taste and action of almonds? neutral and sweet; ventilates LU, relieves cough and asthma, transforms phlegm, lubricates intestines
Created by: kabrown