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OS Key Terms (5)

Connecting to a Network

TermDefinition
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) method of dividing a NET IP address into subnets by designating some # of its host bits as NET bits. Allows the division between the NET ID and host ID to fall anywhere in an IPv4 address; doesn't have to fall on 1 of the 8-bit boundaries.
Connectionless Protocol used in data networking; no connection needed for data transfer. Transmit data without knowing if the destination is ready to accept it, or if it even exists. No delivery guaranteed; operate w/ a very low overhead (conserves NET bandwidth)
Connection-Oriented Protocol used in data networking; 2 systems establish a connection before they transmit data. The computers exchange packets with complex headers designed to provide error detection and correction. Ensures bit-perfect data transmissions.
Data Encapsulation networking protocols add headers and footers (sometimes) to an existing daata structure to provide it w/ addressing info and other function-specific values.
Datagram data structure by a HET layer protocol (IP), consisting of transport layer data w/ header w/ IP address and other comm info
8P8C Connectors type of modular cable connector for data networks made w/ unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling
Firewall virtual barrier between computer and network its attached to; a filter that enables certain incoming and outgoing traffic to pass through.
Frame generated by data link layer such as IEEE 802.3, consisting of NET layer w/ header and footer w/ MAC address and other comm info
Internet Protocol (IP) NET layer protocol in TCP/IP suite. Provides end-to-end addressing and other comm services.
IP Address unique 32-bit numeric address used as an ID for a device, like a computer, on a TCP/IP NET
Link Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) name resolution protocol used by IPv6 computers w/ link-local addresses that don't have access to a Domain Name System (DNS)
Media Access Control (MAC) Addresses 6-byte hexadecimal sequence, hard-coded into each NET interface adapter by the manufacturer, used by a data link layer protocols to uniquely identify a computer on a local area network
Network Address Translation (NAT) routing protocol that enables multiple computers on a private NET to share 1 public IP address.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model design aid that splits data into discrete units (packets), which transmits individually to the destination system, which then reassembles thm back into the original data stream.
Packet-Switching Networks a type of comm NET in which a sending system splits data into discrete (packets), which transmits individually to the destination system, which then reassembles the packets back into the original data stream.
Ports In TCP/IP networking, a code that identifies a particular app running on a computer, used to forward incoming traffic to the proper destination process
Protocols a collection of comm rules that enable computers to comm w/ each other
Router device that connects 1 NET to another
Socket combo of an IP address and a port #, expressed using the format xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:yyyy.
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration IPv6 address assignment technique that enables computers to configure their own addresses after transmitting router solicitation multicasts to the routers on the NET and receiving router advertisement messages in return.
Subnet Mask In TCP/IP networking, a 32-bit value that specifies which bits of an IP address form the NET identifier and which bits form the host identifier.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) a connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides services such as guaranteed delivery and error protection for data transmissions that must be bit perfect
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) type of cabling consisting of a # of wire pairs, each individually twisted and all enclosed in a sheath. UTP cable is often used for voice and data communications.
Created by: BCrahan13