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BMS 302- Unit 1

physiology vs anatomy functions vs morphology
steady state nutrients are being changed, but concentration remains constant
homeostasis relatively stable internal environment
negative feedback when an increase in the input of a system causes a decrease in the output of the system
two primary control systems endocrine, CNS
effector example furnace
receptor= sensor
afferent neurons to CNS
efferent neurons away from CNS
effectors use... (6) skeletal, smooth, cardiac, endocrine, exocrine
most important parameter in rate of diffusion concentration gradient
diffusion movement from higher to lower concentration
resting membrane potential (mv) -70
outside of the cell is +
inside of the cell is -
the resting cell membrane is permeable to K+, Cl-
the resting cell membrane is impermeable to Na+, A-
K+ and Cl- ions travel through leakage channels
K+ concentration gradient inside to outside
K+ electrical gradient outside to inside
Na+ concentration gradient outside to inside
Na+ electrical gradient outside to inside
A- electrical gradient inside to outside
Cl- electrical gradient inside to outside
Cl- chemical gradient outside to inside
A- chemical gradient inside to outside
weird chemical gradients K+ and Cl- (get repelled by electrical gradients)
all cells develop resting membrane potentials (not excitability or conductivity)
Na/K pump 3 Na out, 2 K in (opposite of their chemical gradients)
excitability ability to form an action potential
conductivity ability to propagate action potentials
what cells CONDUCT action potentials neurons, cardiac, smooth, skeletal
what cells are excitable? nerve and muscle cells
conduction velocity rate at which action potential travels down a neuron
polarization separation of charge across the membrane
depolarization more negative to less negative; or negative to positive
depolarization ion and type of channel Na+ gated (in)
repolarization ion and type of channel K+ gated (out)
absolute refractory period no response
relative refractory period threshold is higher to create a response
4 factors that influence conduction velocity myelination, temperature, pharmacologic agents, diameter of the conducting fiber
CNAP (compound nerve action potential) sum of electrical activity occurring at any given time on the compound nerve
greater concentration inside the cell K+, A-
greater concentration outside the cell Na+, Cl-
procaine prevents Na+ gated channels from opening
sarcolemma plasma membrane of muscle cells
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle cells
T tubules conducts action potential from surface to inside of muscle cells
sarcoplasmic reticulum ER of muscle cells (releases calcium ions)
fiber another name for cell when referring to muscle
myofilament elements of contraction; actin and myosin
the movement of Ca++ from the S.R. is via simple diffusion; passive transport
three molecules that make up the actin myofibril actin, tropomyosin, troponin
calcium binds to? troponin
Which molecule moves when Ca++ binds to expose an active myosin binding site on the actin myofilament? tropomyosin
Before myosin can bind to the active actin binding site, it must be in a high energy state. What step is necessary to convert myosin to its high energy state so that it can attach to the myosin binding site on the actin molecule? ATPase hydrolyzes ATP
What events must occur before the myosin head detaches from the actin binding site during relaxation? calcium pump puts Ca++ back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (terminal cisterns); ATP binds to myosin to release actin/myosin interaction
relative calcium concentrations in the muscle cell sarcoplasm=least; sarcoplasmic reticulum=middle; extracellular= most
latent period 8 steps look in notes
Muscles involved in "fine motor skills" will have _____ muscle fibers per motor unit fewer
syncytium mass of cells functioning as a single unit
peristalsis propelling of food through the GI Tract
segmentation mixing and kneading of GI contents
efferent neurons between the Central Nervous System and the effector in the Somatic Nervous System one
efferent neurons between the Central Nervous System and the effector in the Autonomic Nervous System is two
Ganglia are present between the Central Nervous System and the effector in the autonomic nervous system
neurotransmitter in parasympathetic nervous system acetylcholine
preganglionic neurotransmitter sympathetic ns acetylcholine
postganglionic neurotransmitter sympathetic ns norepinephrine
neuron length sympathetic ns short, long
neuron length parasympathetic ns long, short
the adrenal medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system
Preganglionic neurons synapse in the adrenal medulla releasing ________, which initiates the release of _______ into the circulation. acetylcholine, epinephrine
sarcoplasmic reticulum skeletal vs visceral developed, not developed
latent period of skeletal vs visceral short vs long
duration of contraction- skeletal vs visceral milliseconds, seconds
primary source of calcium for visceral smooth muscle extracellular
primary source of calcium for skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum
Visceral smooth muscle cells can be stimulated to contract through (2) pacemaker cells, cell-to-cell activation
Inherent rhythmicity is a property of visceral (single unit) NOT multi unit
slow wave potentials Rhythmic sub-threshold oscillations in membrane potential
slow wave potentials are the result of Na+/K+ pump
when the membrane potential reaches threshold in the visceral smooth muscle pacemaker cell... Ca++ gated channels open
enteric nervous system coordinate inherent contractions into peristalsis and segmentation
effect of atropine on an isolated segment of rabbit ileum no effect
effect of a cholinergic antagonist on an isolated segment of rabbit ileum no effect
cholinergic parasympathetic
adrenergic sympathetic
relative actin:myosin ratio in smooth muscle more actin
Created by: melaniebeale



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