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Immunology1 Rev1T

Immunology 1 practice for test 1, after review (Ch1&2)

What is immunology? The study of the reaction when the host encounters a foreign substance.
What is an antigen? The foreign substance that causes the immune response. It can refer to a pathogen or a part of the pathogen that binds to an antibody.
What is immunity? The discrimination between self and non-self and the defense of self.
What is the immune system? A system of processes and structures that protect the host organism from disease.
What are the 2 basic immune systems in the body? Innate (or natural) and Acquired (or adaptive)
Which immune system is the first line of defense against infection? Innate
Which immune system fights specific pathogens? Acquired
Cells that can attack one pathogen cannot attack another. This describes which immune system? Acquired
Which immune system uses the same strategy against any invader? (It's nonspecific.) Innate
Which immune system is large in scope and therefore able to attack infections that don't exist yet? Acquired
Which immune system can discriminate and has memory? Acquired
Aside from infectious agents like bacteria, name 2 other kinds of antigens. 1. environmental substances 2. synthetic structures
Name 5 structural barriers against pathogens that are part of the innate immune system. 1. skin 2. mucus and cilia 3. ear wax 4. cough reflex 5. sneezing
The pH of what 3 things serve as an obstruction to pathogens? 1. sweat 2. stomach acid 3. vagina
What is the name of the antibacterial enzyme in the skin, stomach, and tears that prevents infections? Lysozyme
What are 3 cells that work for the innate immune system? 1. Granulocytes (eos, basos, neutrophils) 2. monocytes 3. some lymphocytes (NK cells and LAK cells)
Name 3 cells of the innate immune system that can be found in body tissues. 1. macrophages 2. mast cells 3. dendritic cells
What are the 3 basic steps of phagocytosis? 1. Recognition 2. Ingestion 3. Digestion
What is chemotaxis? The movement of a microorganism or cell in response to a chemical stimulus. It can be toward something or away from something.
What is an opsonin? A constituent of blood serum, like an antibody or complement, that makes pathogens easier to destroy.
What is the name of a WBC that looks like a basophil but comes from a different cell line? Mast cell
Mast cells have a primary role in __ and __ reactions. allergic and antiparasitic
What surface immunoglobulin do mast cells express? IgE
Remember that IgE plays a part in __ reactions. allergic
Mast cells have granules of __ and __. histamine and heparin
Where can mast cells usually be found in the body? Tissues, connective tissues, and near mucosal surfaces
Monocytes are called __ once they enter the body tissues. macrophages
Macrophages in the liver are called ? Kupfer cells
Macrophages in neural tissues are called ? microglial cells
Macrophages in connective tissues are called ? histiocytes
Macrophages in bones are called ? osteoclasts
Macrophages in the kidneys are called ? mesanglial cells
What are macrophages in the lungs called? Alveolar macrophages/dust cells
Macrophages in a plaque of atherosclerosis are called ? foam cells
Macrophages are important in __ presentation. antigen
These WBCs look like monocytes and can be found in the blood in their immature state. dendritic cells
When dendritic cells are in the tissues, what state are they in? mature
Unlike most lymphocytic cells, natural killer cells are not __ specific. antigen (they work for the innate immune system)
What kind of cells do natural killer cells destroy in our bodies? tumor cells and virally infected cells
What 2 kinds of infection can NK cells respond to? bacterial and protozoan
What can NK cells turn into that makes them more efficient killers? LAK cells (Lymphokine Activated Killer Cells)
What does PRR stand for? Pattern recognition receptors
PRRs recognize what part of a pathogen? PAMPs
Cells of the __ immune system use PRRs to identify infectious agenst with PAMPs. innate
PRRs can be found on a WBC's surface or its __. insides
Name 2 examples of acute phase reactants. C-reactive proteins, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, glycoprotein, etc..
2 major families of antimicrobial peptides (which happen to be acute phase reactants) are ? defensins and cathelicidins
Acute phase reactants are produced by __ and __. epithelial cells and phagocytes
What stimulates production of acute phase reactants? cytokines
C-reactive protein is an opsonin that activates ? complement
What are the 3 pathways of complement activation? 1. classical 2. alternative 3. lectin
What kind of B cell produces antibodies? Plasma cells
Aside from plasma cells, what other kind of cell can a B cell turn into? Memory cells
What are the 3 basic processes of the innate immune system? 1. inflammation 2. chemotaxis 3. phagocytosis
Name the 2 primary lymphoid organs. Bone marrow, thymus
What are the 2 arms of the acquired immune system? Humoral and cellular
The humoral arm of the acquired immune system offers __ mediated immunity. antibody
The cellular arm of the acquired immune system offers __ mediated immunity. T cell
What is the difference between antibodies, immunoglobulins, and gammaglobulins? nothing
What allows T cells to recognize an antigen? T cell receptor
How do B cells recognize an antigen? Antibodies
On a chart that shows albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma, which part are the antibodies shown under? gamma (they're gammaglobulins)
Name the 5 types of antibody molecules. IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD (MADGE or GAMED)
Which part of the antibody molecule determines which type of antibody it is? Constant region
Which general part of the antibody has the paratope that binds to an antigen's epitope? Variable or Fab
What are the 3 kinds of cells that serve as part of the cellular arm of the acquired immune system? Helper T cells, Cytotoxic T cells, Regulatory cells
Where do antigen presenting cells go to match antigens with lymphocytes? secondary lymphoid organs
The spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes are 3 examples of __ lymphoid organs. secondary
What process uses fluorescently labeled antibodies to CD markers and analyzed WBCs? Flow cytometry
The heavy and light chains of an antibody are bound by what kind of bond? disulfide
Where does papain cleave an antibody? Above the disulfide bond in the constant region of the heavy chain.
Where does pepsin cleave an antibody? Below the disulfide bond in the constant region of the heavy chain.
What do you call the part of an antibody that binds to a epitope? (It's on the variable/Fab region.) paratope
What kind of bond does an antibody make with an epitope? noncovalent
With regard to antibody binding, what is the sum of the ATTRACTIVE interaction between the paratope and the epitope? Affinity (attractive=affinity)
With regard to antibody binding, what is the sum of the BINDING of all the paratopes and the epitopes? Avidity (binding=avidity)
The light chains can be found on the __ side of the antibody. outer
Can IgG bind complement? Yes
Which antibody can be passed from mother to fetus through the placenta? IgG
Which kind of antibody consists of dimers held together by a J chain? IgA, IgM
Which is the first antibody produced? IgM
Which is the largest antibody? IgM
Which antibody is a pentamer that allows for high avidity? IgM
Which antibody can be found on a mature B cell? IgD (also IgM)
Which antibody is involved in antiparasitic and allergic reactions? IgE
Which of the 5 antibody types are opsonic? IgG, IgA, IgM
Which antibody is the most abundant, making up 80% of the antibodies found in blood serum? IgG
Which is the busiest antibody? (It does the most things.) IgG
Which antibody neutralizes toxins and viruses? IgG
Which antibody is the smallest? IgG
Which antibody lives the longest (10 years)? IgG
Which antibody has the second highest concentration in the serum? IgA
Which antibody is seen in secretions? IgA
Which antibody is called a macroglobulin? IgM
IgM antibodies have low __ but high __. low affinity but high avidity
Which antibodies can be found ont the surface of mature B cells? IgM, IgD
Which antibody exists in lowest concentration of them all? IgE
Which antibody is responsible for hypersensitivity? IgE
Light chains found in cases of multiple-myeloma are called __-__ proteins. Bence-Jones
What theory proposes how the huge and diverse antibody repertoire could exist? Clonal selection theory
Clonal selection theory: when lymphocytes interact with antigens, they proliferate and make a __ of cells that respond only to that antigen. clone
During your first exposure to an antigen, which antibody will rise? IgM
During you 2nd exposure to an antigen, which antibody will rise most? IgG
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by a clone of cells called __ cells. hybridoma
Monoclonal antibodies contain what 2 cells types? spleen cell and myeloma cell
Which antibody can be found on the surface of immature B cells? IgM (IgD is found on the surface of mature B cells.)
Created by: IsaacJ