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BMS 300- Unit 1

shell of hydration water surrounds ions (oriented towards opposite charge)
diffusion spreading of ions (through specific ion channels) until equilibrium between two spaces is established
phospholipids are.... modified triglycerides that are amphipathic
relative thickness of a bilayer and cell paper around a watermelon
how many amino acids per turn in an alpha helix 4
how many steps per circle on an alpha helix 3.6
tertiary structure is defined by R group orientation
do beta sheets create channels? not in eukaryotes
Nucleolus more available DNA
ER function synthesizes lipids, synthesizes a subset of proteins
RER creates what types of proteins secreted, transmembrane, lysosomal
the process of attaching sugars to proteins glycosylation (in the ER)
free ribosomes make what kinds of proteins cytoplasmic proteins only
what does the golgi apparatus do? (golgi "stacks") sugar modification; shape modifications
what molecules in the golgi are responsible for changes in shape? chaperonins
sugars always face away from the cytoplasm (lumen of organelles or outside of cell)
the lysosome contains acids and proteolytic enzymes; H+ pump (active transport into cell)
mitochondria background prokaryotic cell taken up, then kept because of ATP production **mtDNA comes only from the mother; CIRCULAR DNA
mitochondria function oxidative phosphorylation; uses oxygen to generate ATP
three proteins that make up the cytoskeleton microtubules; actin filaments (G/F); intermediate filaments
kinesin + end directed motor protein
dyenin - end directed motor protein
cortex near outside of cell; vesicles transported via cortical actin (rather than microtubules)
clathrins endocytosis of vesicles; forms hexagons and endocytoses the vesicle- then goes to actin, then microtubules
why does helix form in DNA but not RNA de-oxy at carbon 2 in DNA (less bulky)
nucleotides with lower BP A/T (or U)
nucleotides with higher BP G/C
pyramidines C, U, T
purines A, G
helicase unwinds DNA and breaks H bonds
DNA polymerase forms phosphodiester bonds and reads 3'-5' (creates bonds 5'-3')
Difference between uracil and thymine (molecularly) Me group missing from Uracil
RNA can act as an enzyme because of 3-d structure
tRNA shuttle craft for amino acids
rRNA makes up the ribosome (forms peptide bonds)
mRNA carries information about the amino acid sequences for proteins
ribosomes read 5'-3'
RNA polymerase reads 3'-5'
signal peptide 17-20 hydrophobic amino acids (that will bind to a signal recognition particle)
translocon is like what when protein is hydrophilic tube
translocon is like what when protein is hydrophobic clam shell
simple epithelia one layer
statified epithelia >1 layer
connective tissue scattered cells embedded in an extracellular protein matrix
four types of tissues epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle
desmosome connects epithelial cells to neighbors
hemidesmosome connects epithelial cells to basal lamina
occluding junctions prevents molecules from getting to the basal lamina b/w cells (aka tight junctions)
gap junctions (and constituents) communication junctions connexon: protein that spans the cell; made up of 6 connexins
types of cell junctions gap (communication), occluding (tight), anchoring (desosomes)
two types of tissue in skin epithelium= epidermis (keratinocytes) connective tissue proper= dermis (fibrocytes + proteins)
epithelium is never vascularized
three types (layers) of epithelial tissue statum corneum= dead; top stratum spinosum= spiny layer stratum basilar= basilar layer
hair and nails are modified keratinocytes
hyaline cartilage spongy b/c of negatively charged GAGs
fibrocartilage "pad"- a lot of collagen
elastic cartilage has elastin, stretchy (ears, epiglottis)
difference b/w osteocyte and osteoblast blast= less mature bone cell
bone cells osteocytes- secrete hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate and some magnesium phosphate)
two types of bone spongy, compact (trabecular and compact)
osteoclast secretes acid and breaks hydroxyapatite into its ion constituents (ready source of Ca)
osteoporosis when there are more osteoclasts than osteoblasts
three types of the endocrine system autocrine, paracrine, endocrine
different types of endocrine receptors high and low affinity
law of mass action [H]+[R]<->[HR]
autocrine system cell releases hormone, binds to receptor on the same cell
paracrine cell releases hormone, binds to receptor on a nearby cell
endocrine hormone released and acts far away (10E-12 -> 10E-10M)
all receptors saturated= receptor saturation
after a hormone binds to a receptor... (4) regulation of endo/exocytosis; regulation of ion channels; regulation of enzyme activity; regulation of transcription/translation
hydrophilic hormones peptides/proteins, modified amino acids
hydrophobic hormones modified cholesterol, modified fatty acids
phosphodiesterase breaks phosphodiester bonds (cAMP- AMP)
steroid hormone acceptor a protein transcription factor; binds to a TATA box, turns on the gene (4 constituents= hormone binding, nuclear binding, DNA binding, transactivation)
Hypothalamic pituitary axis posterior and anterior pituitary
Where did the anterior pituitary come from? Cells in pharynx- created a part that is NOT part of the brain
neuroendocrine cells release vasopressin and oxytocin into the blood of the posterior pituitary
what is the posterior pituitary also known as? neurohypophysis
what does oxytocin do? binds to receptors in smooth muscle to cause contraction (uterine, mammary glands)
what does vasopressin do? regulates water balance by binding to receptors in the kidney
3 cell cascade hypothalamus-> troph cell (in pituitary)-> target gland (& final location)
prolactin exception to normal anterior pituitary (dopamine is the releasing hormone, when it stops, milk is released)
Addison's disease hypocorisolism (higher release of stimulating and releasing hormones)
Cushing's disease hypercortisolism (lower release of stimulating and releasing hormone)
releasing hormone comes from hypothalamus and goes into troph cells in anterior pituitary
stimulating hormone comes from troph cells in anterior pituitary and goes to target organ (where hormone is sent to final gland)
myosin '"walks" on.... actin (short distances)
kinesin "walks" on... microtubules (long distances)
Created by: melaniebeale



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