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Heme Lec 9

MLS Heme Lec 9

QuestionAnswer
Main function of RBC Carry oxygen to tissue and bring carbon dioxide back from tissue
Hemoglobin is responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide
Mitochondria is responsible for making ATP for energy use
ATP must remain viable for what time period 120 days
If ATP is depleted what happens to the cell becomes a shere and becomes rigid and unable to deform
What organ removes the shere shaped cell spleen
What must be present when the nucleus is excluded enzymes
Enzymes produce ATP
When enzymes are depleted cell will be removed from circulation by the spleen or hemoglobin will be oxidized
What happens when hemoglobin is oxidized oxidized into methemoglobin and turns brown
ATP production is RBCs is done via anaerobic glycolysis
Energy requirements of RBC cation pump oxidation protection 1. membrane integrity 2. maintain iron in ferrous form
4 pathways of energy Emden-Meyerhof of glycolytic pathway Hexose Monophosphate Shunt or Phosphogluconate Methemoglobin Reductase Pathway Leubering-Rapaport Shunt or Pathway
Embden-Meyerhof Glycolytic Pathway non-oxidative/anaerobic pathway provides 90% ATP
Hexose Monophosphate Shunt AKA Phosphogluconate provides 5-10% of energy produces pyridine nucleotide NADPH from NADP
Which enzyme is utilized in Hexose-Monophosphate Shunt G6PD
NAPH together with glutathione protects against oxidative injury from toxic reducing oxidants
Reducing oxidents include certain drugs or infections
Methemoglobin Reductase Pathway 1. off-shoot of Embden-Meyerhof 2. maintains heme in ferrous state 3. methemoglobin reductase changes ferric to ferrous
Characteristics of Methemoglobin 1. Cannot combine with oxygen 2. Cyanosis occurs in the patient 3. Bluish discoloration of the skin due to deoxyhemoglobin in the blood
Leubering-Rapaport Shunt/Pathway 1. part of Emden-Meyerhof pathway & 1 ATP used 2. produces 2,3-DPG (diphosphoglycerate)
2,3-DPG affects 1. oxygen affinity of hemoglobin 2. when it binds oxygen is released 3. regulates oxygen delivery to tissues
Erythrocyte (RBC) Membrane requirments 1. intact membrane is essential to roll and tumble through vessels 2. size is 6-8 microns 3. must squeeze through spleen capillaries 4. becomes microcyte
Membrane Description semi-permeable lipid bilayer supported by protein mesh-like cytoskeleton
Membrane Composition 52% protein 40% lipid 8% carbohydrate
Membrane controls functions of transport, flexibility, & antigenic properties
Membrane defects cause altered function leading to premature cell death
Lipid Matrix is made from equal amounts of cholesterol and phospholipids interspersed with protein
Cholesterol is responsible for passive transport of ions, gases, & active transport of cation
Cholesterol and Lecithin affect surface area & creates target cells or acanthocytes developed and destroyed
Hydrophobic Phospholipids probably determine membrane fluidity
Embedded glycolipids carry which RBC antigens A,B,H, and Lewis red cell antigens
Proteins contribute to cell shape, deformability, and membrane stability
Defects in protein lead to 1. abnormal cell shape 2. decreased stability 3. hemolytic anemia
Integral Proteins 1. located in the lipid bilayer 2. Glycophorins 3. band 3 protein
Peripheral Proteins spectrin, actin, ankyrin, and troponyosin
Sialic acid gives cells the negative charge
Carbohydrates give ABO antigens
Peripheral Proteins are located where cytoplasmic surface
Peripheral Proteins form skeleton to maintain biconcave shape
Major Peripheral Protien Spectrin
Spectrin binds what together intirgral and peripheral protein
Function of RBC membrane barrier between cell and plasma
What affects RBC membrane hydrophobic lipids and integral proteins
What does the RBC membrane allows through water and anions
Lack of deformability of RBC is caused by decrease in ATP causes a phosphorylation of spectrin causing loss of deformability
Deformability allows RBCs to roll and tumble
Any deviation in membrane's selective permeability causes influx of sodium and water causing a spherhoid shape and potential rupture which releases Hbg
Erythrocytes must be impermeable to cations
Intracellular to Extracellular Ratio 1:12 for sodium 25:1 for potassium
What actively controls ion concentration hundreds of pumps which require ATP
80% of intracellular calcium is found in erythrocyte membrane
Increased amounts of calcium cause Echinocytes/Burr cells which are rigid shrunken cells with membrane protrusions
Cell aging and reduced ATP causes pumps fail which makes the cell dehydrated and rigid
Blood group antigens are located on oligosaccharide groups of the integral protein
Sialic acid is found on the surface of glycophorin A
Zeta Potential negative charge tht causes cells to repel each other
Created by: mlrlemons