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Microbiology1 Test1

Review for test 1 in Microbiology 1 DelTech Owens

QuestionAnswer
Anton van Leeuewenhook is the father of __. microbiology
Anton van Leeuewenhook made better __ for microscopes. lenses
Theodore Schwann was a German __. physiologist
Matthias Jakob Schleiden was a German __. botanist
Schwann and Schleiden were the cofounders of __ __. cell theory
Cell theory: all living things are composed of __ and __ __. cells and cell products
Rudolf Virchow was a German __, among many other things. doctor
Rudolf Virchow was the father of __ __. modern pathology
Rudolf Virchow first proposed the theory of __. biogenesis
Theory of biogensis: Living cells can arise only from __ living cells. pre-existing
Louis Pasteur was a French __, __, and brewer. chemist, microbiologist
Louis Pasteur proved Virchows theory of __. biogenesis
Louis Pasteur disproved the theory of __ __. spontaneous generation
Robert Koch was a German __. microbiologist
Robert Koch was the founder of __ __. modern bacteriology
Robert Koch proved the theory of __ __. infectious disease
Joseph Lister was a British __. surgeon
Joseph Lister pioneered __ surgery. antiseptic
Joseph Lister used tents and __ __ to sanitize tools and hands. carbolic acid
Today, carbolic acid is known as __. phenol
Listerine was named after __ __. Joseph Lister
Ignaz Semmelweis was a Hungarian __. physician
Ignaz Semmelweis was known for promoting __ __ to antiseptic procedures used by surgeons. hand washing
Alexander Fleming was a Scottish __, __, and __. biologist, pharmacologist, and botanist
Alexander Fleming made __. penicillin
Alexander Fleming was the father of __. antibiotics
What are the 3 main parts to modern cell theory? 1. The cell is the basic unit of life 2. All cells come from other cells 3. All organisms are composed of one or more cells
What are the 4 categories of eukaryotic cells? Algae, fungi, helminths, protozoa
What are the 2 categories of prokaryotic cells? Archae, bacteria
Name at least one acellular kind of cell? viruses (viroids are also acellular)
Of all the cells we work with in the lab, which are the smallest? viruses
Who is the father of microbiology? Robert Hooke
Who is the founder of cell theory? Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
Who first proposed the theory of biogensis? Rudolf Virchow
Who made more powerful lenses and better microscopes with those lenses? Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Who proved Virchow's theory of biogenesis? Louis Pasteur
Who proved the theory of infectious disease? Robert Koch
Who disproved the theory of spontaneous generation? Louis Pasteur
Who pioneered antiseptic surgery? Joseph Lister
Who promoted the use of hand washing in medical facilities? Ignaz Semmelweis
Who used carbolic acid (phenol) to sanitize tools and hands? Joseph Lister
Who made penicillin? Alexander Fleming
Are algae eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or acellular? eukaryotic
Are bacteria eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or acellular? prokaryotic
Are fungi eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or acellular? eukaryotic
Are helminths eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or acellular? eukaryotic
Are archaea eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or acellular? prokaryotic
Are protozoa eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or acellular? eukaryotic
Are viruses eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or acellular? acellular
What kind of microbe is prokaryotic but has eukaryotic qualities? archaea
What does glycocalyx mean? sugar coated
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which is the thin layer? slime layer
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which allows the cell to stick to surfaces? slime and capsule layers
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which is loosely connected to the cell? slime layer
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which is water soluble? capsule layer
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which is the thick layer? capsule layer
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which is loosely connected to the cell? slime layer
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which which is usually found in gram-negative bacteria? capsule layer
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which protects against phagocytosis? capsule layer
Capsule layers resist phagocytosis, but this protection can be overcome by a capsule-specific __. antibody
Of the 2 kinds of cell layers with glycocalyx, which is tightly bound to the cell? capsule layer
Mycoplasma sp. do not have a __ __. cell wall
Cells that do not have a cell wall can change their __. shape
Short cell appendages made mostly from protein and that tend to stick to things are called ? Fimbriae and pili
Only gram-__ cells have pili. negative
Some gram-positive cells can conjugate, or exchange __. DNA or plasmids
When a cell "runs," this means it is moving how? in a single direction
When a cell "tumbles," this means it is doing what? changing direction
Phototaxis is similar to chemotaxis, but it is based on __ stimulus. light
What cell structure wraps around the cell and allows it to move in a corkscrew fashion? Axial filament
The flagella of __ are more complex than those of the other kind of cell. (Not acellular.) prokaryotes
Dormant bodies in an inert resting condition are called __. endospores
Endospores are not about reproduction, but __. survival
A cell with a coccus shape is __. round
A cell with a bacillus shape is __. rod shaped
A twisted or spiral shaped cell is called a __. spirillum
Cells with a vibrio shape look like gently bent __. rods
Cells that gather into clusters have what prefix? Staphylo-
Cells that gather into chains have what prefix? Strepto-
Archaea have no __ in their cell wall. peptidoglycan
Since archaea have no peptidoglycan in their cell walls, they are said to be __. pseudomureins or pseudopeptidoglycans
Some archaea have no cell __, but most do. wall
Archaea can live in __ environments. extreme
Mycoplasma have __ in their cell membranes that help them resist lysis. sterols
What kind of stains are used to show the difference between 2 populations of microbes? differential stains
Gram-negative stains are __ in color. red or pink
Gram-positive stains are __ in color. blue or purple
Which has the thicker peptidoglycan layer: gram-positive cells or gram-negative cells? Gram-positive
Which class of cells are cationic? Gram-positive
Which class of cells are more waxy and have an outer membrane? Gram-negative
Gram-positive cells have __ acids. techoic
Microplasma are gram-_. negative
What are the 4 steps of making a differential stain? 1. apply primary stain 2. apply mordant 3. apply decolorizing agent 4. apply secondary stain (also called a counterstain)
For the 4 steps in making a differential stain, what chemicals do we use? 1. crystal violet 2. iodine 3. alcohol 4. safranin
What kind of stain is used to identify archaea? acid-fast stain
Why are cells that require an acid-fast stain to see so hard to stain? mycolic acid
What are the 2 most universally used stains in the lab? Gram-stain and acid-fast stain
What are the 2 basic parts of a fixation stain? Solvent+dye
What is the colored portion of dye? chromophore
If a dye sticks to the cells and gives them a color, that stain is called a __ stain. positive
If a dye only forms a silhouette around a cell, it is called a __ stain. negative
Basic stains are __ (refers to their charge). catiionic
Cationic stains have a positive charge, so they stick to cells with __ charged components. negatively
Acidic stains are __ (refers to their charge). anionic
Anionic stains are negatively charged, so they only stick to cells with __ charged components. positively
Name 3 stains that we use in our lab. methyline blue, safranin, crystal violet
Gram-staining is __ on cells with mycolic acid. unreliable (so we use acid-fast staining)
Acid-fast cell walls retain __ __ even when decolored with acid-alcohol. carbol fuschin
Name two kinds of acid-fast stains. Ziehl-Neelsen and Kinyoun
What kind of stain only adheres to certain cells components or structures? structural stains
Name 3 kinds of structural stains. (Not specific names, just types) Capsule stains, flagella stains, endospore stains
Structural stains are useful because certain parts of a microbe can cause __ even after the microbe has died. diseases or symptoms
Artificial and synthetic media can come in __ or __ form. liquid or solid
Enriched artificial/synthetic media grow the __ pathogens. most
Selective artificial/synthetic media __ some pathogens while encouraging others to __. inhibit, reproduce
Inoculation is for what 3 things? 1. isolated colonies 2. quantitation of colonies 3. determine susceptibility of colonies
Some microbes grow better or worse at different __. (Hint: think environmental factors) temperatures
Name the taxa of organisms from the largest to the smallest. (Or from the top of the list to the bottom in order.) Domain, Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What are the 4 responsibilities of a clinical microbiology lab? 1. Process specimens 2. Isolate pathogens 3. Identify pathogens 4. Perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing
What are the 6 tools of a clinical microbiology lab? 1. microscopes 2. automated equipment 3. stains 4. inoculating loops and incinerators 5. incubators 6. culture media
Bacteria and protozoa are measures in __ (what unit?). micrometers
Viruses are measured in __ (what unit?). nanometers
The resolution of a microscope can be adversely affected by what things? Human error, poor light, dirty lenses, too little oil
How does oil help us see things through a microscope? It collects light and prevents it from scattering between the specimen and the objective lens so we can see more clearly.
Magnification and resolution are __ related. inversely
What kind of microscope lets you see living specimens? phase contrast
Which kind of microscope uses UV light? fluorescent
Which kind of microscope lets us view brightly lit specimens against a dark background? dark field
Which kind of microscope lets us see dead specimens with stains and a light? brightfield or compound light
Which kind of microscopes let us see viruses? transmission electron
Which kind of microscope sends electrons through a specimen or an extremely thin object? transmission electron
Which kind of microscope bounces electrons off the specimen or object? scanning electron
Which kind of microscope gives specimens a 3D appearance when viewed? scanning electron
Robert Hooke coined the term __. cell
Robert Hooke devised the __ microscope. compound
Robert Hooke was an English __ __. English natural philospher
Which is larger: eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell has a nucleus: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell has organelles that are NOT bound by a membrane: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell has simpler cell walls: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell undergoes division by binary fission: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell has organelles that are compartmentalized: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell never has chloroplasts: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell undergoes mitotic division: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell only reproduces asexually: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell has linear DNA: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell never has cilia: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell has no peptidoglycan: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell has a simple flagella: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Which kind of cell uses electron transport in the cell membrane: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell has pili or fimbriae: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell lacks a Golgi body, mitochondria, and an endoplasmic reticulum: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Prokaryotic
Which kind of cell keeps its DNA stored in the nucleus: eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic
Created by: IsaacJ