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Spend time observing normal lang development kids too; why? Bcz you need to keep your perspective on what is normal versus abnormal language learning
Observe and recognize when a child is making small but steady progress. This is great except that you need to continue to recognize when a child is CONTINUING TO FALL BEHIND!
You need to know how language TYPICALLY evolves so that you can recognize when language ISN'T progressing in a typical fashion...
It is all good to focus on language, language, language, but remember that the real heart of the matter is: COMMUNICATION. The child wants to be able to COMMUNICATE with the world around them.
You need to know what are the child's communication... demands, and is there a mismatch between demands and performance.
3 things Dr. Weiss says we must do: Hold on the awe that you should feel about children learning language, have a basis on normal language learning & don't lose perspective, and remember language disorders mean very little unless perceived in terms of COMMUNICATION ADEQUACY.
All languages be they Written, Oral, or Signed are systematic and rule governed which makes them pretty much predictable except for the fact they are GENERATIVE.
We cannot exhaust all the possibilities of language due to generative properties of language including unique and novel utterances through embedding & conjoining to make sentences never heard before.
The symbols that we use are Arbitrary, but culturally agreed upon. They are socially shared.
The codes allow us to communicate with others in our community. Dialects have formed because the communities were sequestered by islands, oceans, mountain ranges, etc.
Generative, unique, novel, new combinations through embedding and conjoining to form unique and novel utterances, arbitrary codes but agreed upon culturally by a community to facilitate communication within that community (characteristics of written, verbal and signed language.)
Morphology is part of FORM and is the small grammatical units that help us finness our sentences into Tense, Number, Subject/Verb agreement
Syntax is part of FORM and is the rules that govern allowable sentences a.k.a. grammar (grammar is simply the word for 'rule governed units.')
Phonology is part of FORM and is the sound system of our language
Kids don't typically learn FORM CONTENT AND USE one at a time, rather they learn these component parts of language, FORM CONTENT AND USE, SIMULTANEOUSLY!
Not all speech sound disorders are phonological, even though phonology relates to the sound system of our language. Why? Because not all speech sound disorders are phonological - some speech sound disorders relate to faulty learning of how to produce the sounds - how to move the articulators to make a specific sound.
How are Syntax and Morphology related to Phonology? Syntax and Morphology are related to Phonology in that if you increase the LOAD in terms of syntax, the child will make more errors producing the sounds.
What is meant by LOAD as it relates to increasing difficulty for language? If you increase the LOAD (the DIFFICULTY) in terms of Syntax, a child who has a difficult time producing SOUNDS will make MORE errors and have more difficulty producing the sounds.
Kid will have an easier time correctly producing speech sounds if they are in an easier sentence; they will have a harder time with a more grammatically complex sentence - increases the difficulty with phonology.
Kid will have an easier time producing speech sounds correctly if they are in words that have a simple construction CVC instead of CCCVCCCVC constructs - You don't want to embed a sentence with really complex phonetic words - let them focus their cognitive resources that they have for language learning on the actual TASK.
The inter-relationships of language learning all resource off of the same pool of resources. Like, they are all sharing the components of a mega language learning resource... they have to SHARE it.
A kid may present with a really low vocabulary because much of their resources may be being used up by trying to comprehend syntax, just as an example. If a kid is having a difficult time with a particular language component (ie: syntax) they are using a lot of their resources to comprehend it.
Think clearly when planning treatment - ask yourself What are you asking your client to DO? Is their failure because of their skill level or is the task you created sapping too many resources? There is a PROCESSING CONNECTION in all of these different language areas!!!
The CONTENT part is called Semantics - and that is the vocabulary, the meaning of words in our language, the lexicon, for Lexicon means 'Dictionary.' Lexical Learning = Learning the Vocabulary.
The Content part, or Lexicon, isn't just learning the expressive vocabulary or sign, but rather it is also the words that a child UNDERSTANDS. We know that kids have a larger receptive vocabulary or LEXICON early on.
The USE part is known as PRAGMATICS. Pragmatics is the actual USE... it relates to Who we are talking with, the Situation, How much we think our conversational partner actually knows about the topic, etc.
When kids are learning the PRAGMATICS / USE part of language, they are learning about COMMUNICATIVE INTENT! COMMUNICATIVE INTENT!!! They are learning about what are the different FUNCTIONS that language can be USEFUL for????? Hmmm! Language can be useful for Requesting! For Commenting! For Negotiating! For Teasing! For Labeling!
There are lots of different communicative intents that kids learn as part of their learning about Pragmatics/Use... Kids might start with a small set but it grows with maturity. They learn that for each communicative intent, there are MULTIPLE ways of expressing it; not just one way of requesting (for example.)
What is Presupposition? It is good to have a good sense of presupposition. Presupposition allows a communicator to make changes in how they formulate the messages so that their communication is more successful. It may change the way to speak to a particular listener.
You might preface your opening remarks differently, use different vocabulary with presupposition... Little kids will judge the level of sophistication of their conversational partner based upon size of the communicative partner. Will make the assumption to speak in a less sophisticated manner with smaller children (an example of code switching.)
What is code switching? An example or presupposition - a child talking to a smaller child in a less sophisticated manner - presupposition that they need to use less sophisticated language to effectively communicate.
Little kids may not take the perspective of the listener over a traditional phone Grandma, do you like my party dress? (assuming they are not on Skype.)
What are Discourse Competencies??? Big D = any time we put sentences together little 'd' = conversation
Big D in Discourse Competencies: any time we put sentences together - could be a monologue, could be written text - one of the things kids need to do as speakers and writers is formulate sets of ideas that are the MOST COMMUNICATIVE - pick vocab and syntax that FITS the SITUATION...
Pragmatics is so tightly woven into communication that some believe that it may have some kind of Central Control. Pragmatic areas can be assessed and may require intervention if the child isn't keeping up with typical development. Pragmatic language disorder may require treatment.
Through age 3, which is faster in language learning, expressive or receptive language? Receptive language learning is much more rapid than expressive language through age 3.
Another aspect of Semantics is the relationship between roles that words play... Ie: when a child learns the word 'daddy' they don't understand kinship yet - they just understand that it is a warm being that helps care for them, then they learn he is a do-er of actions, then that he can be a recipient of language..
The diff btw 'mommy hug' and 'hug mommy' could be an example of semantics and the roles that words play - this is a precursor to grammatical development - they are expressions of the relationships words can have with one another but at a more primitive level.
As kids learn more and more vocabulary, what does that get them? They learn that they are more likely to be understood by others as they can be more specific about the information they want to convey; when learning about 'storytelling' they find that they can hold a listener's attention longer with larger vocabulary
When kids learn about Syntax, what are they learning? Syntax is a part of FORM - kids learning syntax are learning what constitutes a grammatically correct sentence - questions! Declaratives! Imperatives! They are learning CONJOINING & EMBEDDING subordinate clauses next to main clauses better communication!
Morphemic learning is part of FORM, too. Learning about Free and Bound Morphemes... Walk is a free morpheme. It can exist on its own. /s/ is a bound morpheme. /s/ cannot exist on its own and must be bound to something. /s/ can make something 3rd person singular or plural.
Bound morphemes make our communication more descriptive in terms of the number we are talking about, tense, negation, possession Morphophology finnesses the use of grammar (especially the bound ones) and help you be understood by other members of your language community.
When kids present with language disorders as young children, they often have problems with Morphology and the learning of grammatical morphemes - it is almost universal.
What is the Phonological Aspect of Language? Well, it is part of FORM... Which are the phonemic parts? Sounds that can indicate a meaningful difference between words! Ie: the /h/ and the /m/ are phonemes in English because /hat/ and /mat/ have two different meanings. This makes them phonemes.
What are phonotactic constraints? Kids are also learning about phonotactic constraints - that is, they are learning about how some sounds are not allowed to follow other sounds in a language. They are also learning the morphophonemic rules, too.
What are the morphophonemic rules??? Bridges - a rule that Bridges... 3 DIFFERENT WAYS TO FORM THE PLURAL /S/... /S/ /Z/ /IZ/ IT IS ABOUT THE PLURAL WHICH IS MORPHOLOGY, BUT THE WAY YOU PRODUCE IT MAY CHANGE.
Underlying Forms - what are they? Underlying forms are the child's abstract understanding of an adult word - for example, we can't always assume when a child hears the word 'red' that they are comparing it to the meaning...
Underlying Forms - how does this happen? Children are attempting to match up the sound system that they PRESENTLY USE with the sound system that ADULTS USE - it is a developmental process that happens over time. They WANT to do this because it INCREASES INTELLIGIBILITY.
With regard to Underlying Forms, why would a child care about how 'intelligible' they are? A child will move closer to adult forms from their early 'underlying forms' because, through intelligibility, they can be BETTER UNDERSTOOD and thus MORE COMMUNICATIVE.
Typical language learning occurs without direct teaching from caregivers with the exception of: Politeness terms - these are taught by caregivers through prompting and modeling. Most language is not specifically taught.
How, if children are not specifically taught language, do they learn language??? Children, with the exception of politeness terms, learn language from the 'language that occurs around them and that they participate in.' There may be some cultural differences...
In some cultures, children are very welcome communication partners, and other cultures adapt a 'speak when spoken to' approach. Different cultures treat language differently.
Kids are learning language from a very early age - with regard to gesturing, There is evidence to support that children as young as 5 and 6 months are using gesture purposefully.
What defines 'real words' when you ask a parent if their child is using 'real words,' what does this MEAN? To be defined as a REAL WORD, a word must meet 3 criterion: 1) it must be consistent with the context in which it is used 2) it must be reasonably consistent with the phonetic form and 3) it must show similarity to an adult word.
If a word does not meet these three criterion, but rather only meets TWO of them, what do we call that??? To be defined as a REAL WORD, a word must meet 3 criterion: 1) it must be consistent with the context in which it is used 2) it must be reasonably consistent with the phonetic form and 3) it must show similarity to an adult word. 2 out of 3 = PROTOWORD
First 10 words in a lexicon develop very slowly 10 - 50, the rate is faster
Phonology is part of FORM and is the sound system of our language, but also relates to these: Segmentals and Suprasegmentals. Segmentals are the actual phonemes /f/ /p/ and Suprasegmentals are layered on TOP of the phonemes (pitch, intonation, rhythm.)
Language is a code whereby ideas about the world are represented though a conventional system of arbitrary signals of communication that possesses Displacement, Arbitrariness, Culturally Agreed Upon Symbols, Reflexiveness, and Productivity
Productivity relates to one other concept besides embedding and conjoining Recursion - the ability to keep on repeating the rules of embedding and conjoining.
Chomsky - Tranformational Grammar Addition, Deletion, Transposition and Substitution (pronominalization)
At 18 months a child will have an impressive lexicon of approximately 50 words which is when they begin to use 2-word utterances which is the beginning of syntax (within the 1st 50 words, comprehension seems to precede production.) 1st 50 words are often nouns.
Dr. Weiss is a functionalist, that is to say that she believes: that children learn language because language is USEFUL - relates to pragmatics.
With regard to cross-linguistic children, children develop language similarly between 1 and 3 years of age (English, Spanish, etc.) because they are expressing the way their world WORKS. Possession, doer of action, they are similar cognitively and thus are learning language similarly.
With regard to the 'Sharing' Vignette and risk taking: You should create an atmosphere where the child can take risks safely - give them a pat on the back for giving it the old college try - don't tell them they are wrong, just model the correct production. Allow them to use context modern art/orange
With regard to the 'Sharing' Vignette and presupposition: Angela had more linguistic output - there was evidence of presupposition - her prosodic contours changed when she spoke to the child with a language impairment, she tried to teach, to define, used a variety of sentence forms, and motherese
Bilingual children should have a language rich environment at home where parents speak to them in the language they are most comfortable speaking in - this assists with development. Kids who are learning more than one language may take a little longer. May mix grammar and language rules in same sentence but get better at it with time.
2ND DISC STARTS HERE IFSP Individualized Family Service Plan Family Systems, Family-Centered Service Delivery & Assessment Models
What expectations do you have for the caregiver's participation in the service delivery process?
What expectations do you have for the client's participation in the service delivery process?
What expectations do you have for the professionals participation in the service delivery process?
What is a Family Systems Approach?
Definition of a family: Two or more individuals who define themselves as a family and who assume obligations to one another to meet needs over time
Families represent systems of what? Interaction and Relationship
A family systems approach must emphasize: Family STRENGTHS
What is the emphasis in a family systems approach? COMPETENCE AND INDEPENDENCE
What should a family systems approach DO? A family systems approach should ENABLE families by building CONFIDENCE and INDEPENDENCE.
What is the PHILOSOPHY of Family Centered Care? "The Family is what is CONSTANT'What IS' and has INTERRELATED LIFE CONTEXTS. Individualized,Culturally Sensitive, Enabling, Empowering, Needs-Based. Family Centered Care should help the family identify and obtain services based on their priorities.
Service Delivery for Family Centered Care should be coordinated, normal, and collaborative
What is meant by 'normal' or 'normalization' as it relates to Family Centered Care Service Delivery? Normalization means it should promote integration in the community for both the child, and the family.
What is meant by Collaborative as it relates to Family Centered Care Service Delivery? Collaborative means that Families and Professionals collaborate to create an Action Plan - they do so TOGETHER.
What are some BARRIERS to working effectively with families? BARRIERS to working with families fall into 3 categories: Systems-Based, Family-Based, and Professional-Based.
Systems-Based, Family-Based, and Professional-Based are descriptors of what? The barriers that may exist to working with families.
What is meant by Systems-Based as it relates to Barriers to working effectively with families? Systems-Based Barriers could be Administrative, Reimbursement, and Time Issues.
What is meant by Family-Based as it relates to Barriers to working effectively with families? Family-Based Barriers could be Education, Previous Experiences, Beliefs, Culture, Race
What is meant by Professional-Based as it relates to Barriers to working effectively with families? Professional-Based Barriers could be beliefs, training, culture, race, and previous experiences.
How to Families Function? 7 Things: PRAISEE Providing Daily Care Recreationally Affectionately In terms of self-identity Socially Economically Educationally/Vocationally
What do we hope the OUTCOMES will be when working with families? RESPECT to them. IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE if needed Offer them CONTROL over entry into world of service delivery. To let family members know WHO YOU ARE and WHAT YOU DO philosophy, qualifs and services. Understand families major CONCERNS / PRIORITIES.
What are some variables that affect families Needs and Reactions at time of Referral??? Knowledge of the disability/etiology Type & Degree of Condition Individual diffs in copies strategies History of interactions with profs and agencies Reactions and support from others Amount and type of stressors facing family.
These variables may affect families Needs and Reactions at time of Referral, too: Family Resources Age of Client Time of Diagnosis Agreement with Referral Family Members' expectations of the client Cultural/Ethnic values, traditions, and beliefs
There are 3 different Intervention Team Models: Multidisciplinary Team (A) INTERdisciplinary Team (B) TRANSdisciplinary Team (C)
Why A,B,C?? Multidisciplinary Team (A) INTERdisciplinary Team (B) TRANSdisciplinary Team (C) Because on a spectrum where A is leftmost, that is the professional centered side, and over the right at 'C' is the most family centered side.
Multidisciplinary Teams function SEPARATELY. This means that: They are comprised of professionals working SEPARATELY from each other. They may work side-by-side but only in a parallel sense... They may even share the same space, or use the same tools, but they still FUNCTION SEPARATELY.
Because of the lack of communication between team members in a multidisciplinary team (figure, they are working SEPARATELY) this buts the burden on who? The family - they end up with the burden of communication...
INTERdisciplinary Teams fall in the MIDDLE of the spectrum. They are made up of caregivers and professional from several disciplines. INTERdisciplinary Teams have some communications going on but via FORMAL LINES of communication that encourage team members to share their information and discuss individual results - this is done via regular meetings held to discuss clients.
Because of the Formal Nature of communication in an INTERdisciplinary Team, a case management plan must be put in place so that this burden does not fall to the family alone. There is separate assessment of the child by DISCIPLINE, but then MEMBERS COME TOGETHER at MEETINGS to discuss and it is all over-seen by case management...
TRANSdiciplinary Teams are true TEAMS. They are more FAMILY CENTERED. These teams are made up the Parents and the Professionals from several disciplines and use this type of assessments: TRANSdisciplinary Teams use ARENA assessments. This means that professionals try to overcome the confines of individual disciplines and form TEAMS that cross discipline boundaries.
What are the 2 FUNDAMENTAL BELIEFS in TRANSDISCIPLINARY TEAMING? 1) a child's development must be viewed as INTEGRATED AND INTERACTIVE 2) Children must be served WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE FAMILY.
In a TRANSdisciplinary Team, decisions are made through TEAM CONSENSUS, but then the PLANS... In a TRANSdisciplinary Team, decisions are made through TEAM CONSENSUS, but then the PLANS are carried out by the FAMILY and a PRIMARY SERVICE PROVIDER.
If as professionals you choose to adopt a TRANSdisciplinary Team Approach, you need to commit to these concepts: The time & energy needed to teach, learn and work across traditional boundaries, work toward making decisions together as a team, support the family and 1 other team member as Primary, recognize the family as most important influence & make equal partner
Recognize the family as the most important influence in the child's life and include them as equal partners on the team who have a say in all decisions made by the team? TRANSdisciplinary Team
Work toward making decisions about the child and family via team consensus TRANSDISCIPLINARY Team
What ingredients make for successful TRANSdisciplinary team building?? Members must understand the team's mission and goals. Open Communication btw team members Sufficient time There must be sufficient resources available. Team Members must bring appropriate Training, Skills, and Experience to the activities of the team.
Why is Open Communication so important to team building for a TRANSdisciplinary team? Open Communication btw team members encourages Diversity, Manages Conflict, and Seeks Feedback
Why is sufficient time so important to a TRANSdisciplinary team? Sufficient time is required to build a successful TRANSdisciplinary team because sufficient time needs to be devoted to fostering the growth of individual team members and the team as a whole.
What are some other things that would help build an effective TRANSdisciplinary team? Problem Solving Strategy - need effective one High Standards to evaluate indiv performance Climate of prof/personal support and trust 1 identified leader, or leadership divided among several members. Organizational support to ensure process/product
Language develops in service to: Communication
Languages are: systematic, creative/generative, comprised of arbitrary symbols, socially-shared codes, not necessarily verbal or written
Pragmatics: the Use component of language
Semantics: the Content component of language
Morphology, Syntax, and Phonology the Form component of language
Form, Content and Use are interactive components of language and have implications for both Normal and Disordered Language Learning
Language Disorders and Speech Sound Disorders are both part of the same, larger language system. If you increase the load of one component, it will subsequently have an impact on another component of language.
Pragmatics? Communicative Intention Presupposition Discourse Competencies
Semantics Vocabulary/Lexicon Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Relationships that words can hold between them
Grammatical Sentences can be different shapes: ie: questions, declaratives, imperatives
Sentences can take on different grammatical shapes through embedding, conjoining and recursion sentence structures.
Morphemic aspect of language? Morphology? Bound and free meaningful units are morphemes. Cat - free morpheme /s/ - bound morpheme (can be plural, 3rd person singular, possession)
Morphemes can be used to show: Number (plurals) Tense (past) Possession (possessive marker) Negation (un-, non-)
Phonology and phonologic aspect? Sounds that comprise the native language Phonotactic constraints Morphophonemic rules (s, z, iz) Underlying forms that child has for adult forms
Protodeclaratives: Look at this! (Gaze coupling)
Protoimperatives: Do this! Looks at something she wants.
According to Functionalists, pragmatics drives language learning but no one has an irrefutable answer as to how does language develop...
children develop language similarly which relates to cognitive basis of language learning and yet differently depending on the constraints of the language.
ASHA defines language disorders as when a child's competency is significantly different than what would be expected for that child's chronological age (CA). Consideration is also given for a child's mental age (MA) because the relationship between cognition and language is not precisely understood.
When evaluating a child for language disorder, note is language being learned in a manner that reflects language delay or unlike that of observed in younger, normally developing children? Note: how is communication affected by language difficulty or set of difficulties in terms of SOCIAL STANDARD?
If a child has language delay, note whether or not there are: concomitant developmental concerns in addition to that of language.
Dialect differences do NOT constitute language disorders but rather language DIFFERENCES.
We all speak a dialect. Some dialects spoken are considered to be non-standard because they contain some differences from the designated standard, however, the designation of the 'standard' is an arbitrary one...
Non-standard dialects are MORE LIKE the designated standard though than they are different... This allows speaker of a standard dialect to still be able to understand those who have a non-standard dialect and vice versa.
Language Differences can be present in all components of the language system Pragmatics, semantics, phonology, morphology, and syntax.
Misdiagnosis is UNETHICAL based on language or dialect 'differences.' Therapy can be provided to teach 'code switching' but should not be for the purpose of replacing one dialect with another (standard for non-standard) CONTEXT CUES are used to learn when to use the 'home language' versus the 'school language.'
These code-switching context cues can be not only from home to school, but also can change WITHIN cultures as well as ACROSS cultures.
For an adequate observation of language, we want the data we collect to be REPRESENTATIVE of the child's language abilities, what is typical for this child to do? How can we be sure data was collected in a naturalistic setting?
Think about what questions we want to answer as part of an observation: is this representative of abilities? Is this typical for the child to do? Is this a naturalistic setting? What should we avoid? What should we include? How long an observation? Observe all in one day or over time? Are we gathering verbal input only?
If you aren't just gathering verbal input only, be sure you have a way to record your data. You would need to record verbal, too, if that is want you intend to collect data on. Rates of behaviors Total number of occurences Correct/Incorrect responses to questions Ratio of correct/incorrect responses to questions Tally and be sure they are correct!
What are some more things you might look for when doing an observation? # requests verbal or non-verbal #times the child initiates new topic Number of different words used by child versus the total number of words used Ration of grammatical to ungrammatical sentences Average # morphemes/utterance Diff types of sentences?
Also watch for these when doing an observation: General rating of the child's intelligibility Attempts to communicate with gesture, and types of gestures used.
Language disorder used to be considered in terms of mental age - why is this no longer true? Because mental age determinations were denying kids services. Figure if their IQ was only 60, some people thought that they could not learn language so services were not provided to them; we know better now.
What is used then instead of mental age as a determinant factor? Instead of mental age for determination purposes, we now use chronological age.
We do not use mental age because it isn't really fair, after all, we do not really understand the correlates btw cognition and language. We don't really know how much is really required to be a successful language learner, and how little IQ you can have, and still acquire language.
Another reason that we do not use mental age as a determinant relates to the fact that it makes the data invalid when used on students with language deficiencies. Figure, if a subtest requires measurement of intellectual functioning based on verbal tests, you wouldn't get a valid result with someone with verbal language deficiencies.
You can't measure intellectual functioning by utilizing a skill set you know they don't have - makes the results biased. Instead we would use some performance type tests that minimize requiring language ability.
In some instances we still use mental age, but only for those who are CLEARLY FUNCTIONING BELOW their chronological age. Then you would still use mental age, but you wouldn't measure their ability to use language by it.
We don't always have to look at measurements of language as 'typical language competencies' We can instead have FUNCTIONAL Language Skills or Competencies...
What is meant by Functional Language Skill Competencies? Pt. may not be able to use complex syntactic structures, but they may be able to produce simple sentences that convey the meanings they need to convey in their activities of daily living.
Simple sentences that convey the meanings they need to convey in their activities of daily living - Functional Language Skills/Competencies ie: working at the Salvation Army and 'how to greet customers.' - a sheltered type of context, learning functional language tasks
Using Mental Age tends to be Exclusionary and would keep individuals out of therapy that would benefit from therapy, just that they might not make it to typical functioning... Might just make it to Functional Language Skills or Competencies instead.
What is meant by significant in terms of a 'significant discrepancy' Diff school districts have diff criterion for determining who is eligible for services.
Remember, with young children, there is a diff btw acquisition of receptive and expressive/productive language - Receptive occurs first. If a child is 6 or more months delayed in receptive language and 1 Year or more delayed in expressive language, then the child can be diagnosed with a language disorder.
If a child has problems with receptive language (assuming they are supposed to be making strides in receptive early on) that is more of a concern than expressive language. We expect some discrepancy in the timing of expressive language with preschool kids.
When a child scores at 1 1/2 standard deviations below the mean in language measures that is when they are most likely to be diagnosed with a language disorder. Figure, ONE standard deviation puts the kid at the lower end of 'normal' or 'average' expectations. This means that the little 1/2 more makes all the difference in eligibility.
The extra 1/2 deviation over the 1 deviation from the mean in language measures is the hallmark btw non-language disordered and language disordered. Doesn't seem like much. Other schools set the criterion at 2 standard deviations, but that locks a lot of kids out.
2 Standard Deviations from the mean in language measures = 2 1/2% = this doesn't work because typically the population of language disordered is more like 7 1/2 % of the population this is when you know you are missing kids that require services...
If you go with 1 1/2 to 2 standard deviations from the mean in language measures you are about where you should be i terms of capturing the kids who truly need speech and language services.
Discrepancy as it relates to standard deviations from mean?? Discrepancy?? Discrepancy is the difference between what we would EXPECT for that chronological age, and their true performance. It is NOT ability versus achievement. Rather it is performance compared to CA expectations!!!!
Another thing to consider is if a child appears to be LEARNING LANGUAGE in a TYPICAL FASHION/MANNER/WAY Autistic kids learn language differently than a typically developing child, and Downs Syndrome kids have the language competencies of younger but typically developing kids with similar growth and similar early sentences produced.
It shouldn't be all about the test scores - ask also "How is the child's ability to communicate impacted by their competencies???" What is EXPECTED by their ENVIRONMENT, and what are they EXPECTED to DO? Can the child make their needs and wants known effectively? ALSO ask yourself if there are OTHER CONCOMITANT DEVELOPMENTAL CONCERNS (delays in learning self-help, fine and gross motor, cognitive skills, etc.)
Why does it matter that you notice if a child has other Concomitant Developmental Concerns? Because, a child with other Concomitant Developmental Concerns may need different types of treatment than kids who ONLY have a language disorder.
Language Disorder HAS to be DIAGNOSED in the child's HOME LANGUAGE/HOME DIALECT and DIAGNOSED in terms of CONTEXT! The context in which the child learns language, the expectations for the child learning language. If they speak Spanish at home, you cannot expect that child to have the same English skills as a child of that same age - might NOT equal a language disorder
Some dialects are considered 'standard' and others 'non-standard...' the designation is arbitrary though - there is no CORRECT, only different - they are EQUAL. In Sign Language there can be dialect differences as well!
African American dialects are more LIKE Standard American English than they are different If you are speaking non-standard, you aren't using ALL the features of the standard dialect, but you don't NEED to be using all the features to be considered a speaker of the non-standard, either.
Language Disorder is identified in your dominant language or dominant dialect. Child would have to be evaluated in African American English to determine language disorder.
You CAN have a language disorder in a non-standard dialect, and people who speak Spanish may have a language disorder in Spanish - need to be evaluated in Spanish though if that is dominant language.
There is a very Anglocentric attitude in this country, that if people don't speak English, they SHOULD. HOWEVER, if you don't want to diagnose kids inappropriately, you darn well better be evaluating them in their dominant language or dominant dialect. You can't label people who don't need it or give them therapy if they don't need it.
It is possible that a bilingual/bidialect child may benefit from ELL, or may opt for ELECT for Code Switching therapy. Code Switching again isn't right or wrong, but rather Home Language versus School Language or Home Dialect versus School Dialect, helping the child learn when to use each, both, most communicatively.
There is a difference btw elective services and therapeutic services. Therapeutic always takes precedence. Family can elect to have elective services. Remember though, don't REPLACE, just help child determine which language or dialect is most communicative in which setting.
In Family Systems Approach the focus is on including families in decision making they are major players in the work we do, especially with young children.
In Family Systems Approach you should emphasize family STRENGTHS not just NEEDS. Our goal is to: Help the family become more competent, more independent - less challenges and more strengths so that they can function more independently. Enabling families.
Why the shift to Family Systems Approach? Because the family is the 'constant' in the child's life - it is 'Ecologically-Based...' it is the natural setting in which the child functions.
We can not ethically provide therapy in English if their family speaks Spanish unless their family also speaks English. Why? Because it would remove their ability to speak with family members - family is the 'constant.'
Therapy should be INDIVIDUALIZED. For example, even with caseloads and limited time, cultural 'trends' and 'differences' may have us change the way we do things with certain families. IE: Some Latino pts need a little small talk before therapy to feel like we care about them as people.
The kind of NEEDS that a family may have may go well beyond the SLP scope. Other professionals will help with those needs, such as social workers for housing, food, etc. Service delivery should be coordinated though - you should never be surprised to learn about a severe need - speech and language services may not be the most critical need for a family.
Normalization relates to helping the family become part of the community they live in, helping them fit better, providing an opportunity for community participation and thus to feel more 'normalized.'
Family Systems Approach is COLLABORATIVE should be a joint venture between the family and the professionals, some families don't understand until you explain to them how they are the true expert on their child, but that you DO have professional recommendations.
Some examples of systems based barriers to services are travel, paperwork
Biggest family based barrier is Previous Experiences coloring their perceptions.
Random: Children who stutter shouldn't be scheduled within an inch of their lives They need some 'down time.'
As it relates to child neglect, keep in mind that you need to have the Whole Story in mind. Perhaps the parent can't get the kid to therapy because they don't have a ride, or a car, or food for that day... Therapy should take a 'backseat' to these types of needs.
There may be variables affecting family member's needs and reactions to referrals You may need to educate the parent about the red flags posed by assessment, a condition that is degenerative, you may realize a family that needs social support, some parents fall apart over minor language disorders and lack perspective.
Expectations for caregivers: participate in home program provide assistance to child as needed aid clinician in creating an optimal learning environment, be a partner in decision making, provide relevant input on client's needs provide oppty for generalization, on time, understand disorder, be honest, encourage child, communicate, be polite, be supportive of progress, provide accurate info
Expectations for client: participation and engagement in task, express personal goals and interests, be motivated and well behaved, participate in home program, follow directions and transition, view communication as an intrinsic reward, make some progress express some enjoyment in activity, state own insights into primary concerns
Expectations for professionals: have a plan, be prepared, accommodate client by changing expectations activities, time of day and day of session, share info with other profs post HIPAA, be confident and recognize you are learning, utilize other professionals, work with family to make functional goals, be aware of cultural differences, use appropriate assessments, gather background info and interests, be honest, uphold ethics, adapt, have multiple plans, use individualized treatment
Most of the kids we work with have other disabilities besides speech
Multidisciplinary Team use same tools, same space, a lot like parallel play may use same assessment tools but don't work together on it and do separate reporting.
Multidisciplinary Teams positive and negative positive = less time cause everyone works on their own on their own schedule. Negatives = parent may be overwhelmed and not able to manage the coordination
Once upon a time in order to have a multidisciplinary team you had to live in a highly populated urban center, now people use Skype and teleconferencing.
Interdisciplinary Team is a little more family centered, made up of both professionals and caregivers - caregiver is the important addition to the 'team.' There is a formal setup for communication one person acts as coordinator and chairs a team meeting where all profs bring their results together and come up with overall recommendations family can talk, ask ?s
Case management aspect in a INTERdisciplinary team is good. What are positives / negatives? Interdisciplinary: burden off family and family involvement are positives
Transdisciplinary Team is an attempt to overcome the boundaries and confines of individual disciplines. Form teams that cross professional boundaries. To make it work, 2 things: See that it is Integrated and Interactive.
Transdisciplinary Teams must be Integrated and Interactive
What does integrated and interactive mean as it relates to Transdisciplinary Teams? Role Release - it means that I do not have to perform the functions of an SLP only provided I have received appropriate training, I might do physical therapy one day, OT, PT, or they might do some of my job. More clients served by fewer professionals.
I might have to 'equalize tone' before doing SLP work with a child with CP in this type of team due to Role Release. Transdisciplinary - more cost effective to the school $wise, and more time economical for the family and child, too.
What is the focus with a Transdisciplinary Team approach? What is FUNCTIONAL from the perspective of the FAMILY, children must be served within the context of the family, Integrated, Interactive, Plans must be carried out by family and primary service provider. Decisions by team consensus agree on lvl of service
Often in a Transdisciplinary Team, the primary service provider is the person who represents the discipline where the client has one of the greatest needs.
What is to lose with a Transdisciplinary Team? How comfortable are you with being a certified SLP and giving up your territory and teaching another professional to do what you do? How can you be sure the family is getting the right services? Must commit TIME and ENERGY to learn to work this way.
Transdisciplinary Teams work across traditional boundaries must be willing to work by team consensus, recognize that the family is a very important part of the team, and feel that you can support the family and the primary service provider.
To be an Effective member of a Transdisciplinary Team,you need a mission statement: Must believe the transdisciplinary team is the BEST way to provide services to the children you serve, have sufficient resources, sufficient time for training, and that the program has professionals they KEEP, not just borrow for training purposes.
Transdisciplinary Team works in NICU everyone has to be at the top of their game, cutting edge skills, experience in how the team works, all profs usually are part time.
Open communication is super important in a Transdisciplinary team because you need to have team consensus be comfortable getting feedback, constructively present info, manage differences of opinion - time is spent on growth of team members and team as whole.
One of the first things you need to do when assessing a person is identify if they have normal hearing acuity. Whenever you are concerned about the DEVELOPMENT of a child's language, the FIRST THING you must RULE OUT is HEARING LOSS.
Just because more and more states have made it mandatory for newborns to have hearing screenings, doesn't mean that there is uniform follow up! This means that there are still kids who GET THROUGH THE SYSTEM WITH UN-DIAGNOSED HEARING LOSS.
If you have ruled IN a hearing loss, that doesn't mean that is ALL the child has, but it is a critical piece of information. Must urge/recommend the family take the child to a hearing professional appropriate for the child's age.
Abnormal hearing acuity has some affect on language learning unless perhaps it is a very mild to moderate hearing loss, and even then it could have an impact. If there are no steps taken, the child will have some diff w/ langauge learning. an ear plug or conduction loss can equal 20 dB of attenuation - takes away the subtleties of speech and requires medical intervention. Could result in auditory deprivation and speech and language problems.
If you have ruled IN a hearing loss that doesn’t mean that is all the kid has but it is a critical piece of information. Must urge the family to take the kid to an age appropriate hearing specialist 20dB of attenuation is the equiv of a good fitting ear plug but it takes away the subtleties of speech and requires medical intervention. Could result in auditory deprivation and speech and language problems.
It is controversial to teach a deaf child born to hearing parents to use sign language instead of oral language because it is believed for that child to be fully integrated into their family they must use oral language however if you don’t teach the child an alternative means of communication you are denying them the ability to communicate.
Cochlear implantation is another controversial subject because the Deaf community believes you are ‘stealing’ members of their community realistically though hearing with a cochlear implant is not the same as normal hearing.
If a child is not developing language typically and the child is learning language in a typical hearing family look for hearing as a factor.
If a child is not developing language typically also consider cognitive deficits although kids with cognitive deficits can learn language – even if in a more functional capacity.
Is the child exhibiting psycho-social behaviors as one may see on the Autism Spectrum can’t share attention with another person not treating others as conversational partners ignorant of role others play in communication not using gestures not being communicative (and not just verbal)
Consider if the child has mobility limitations – a child who is in a standing table/chair cannot go explore their environment – this is one of the ways kids learn language rather a child with restricted mobility must have the environment come to them.
In the absence of a hearing loss a cognitive deficit a mobility limitation or psycho-social concerns - if you can rule out all of these things the child may have a specific language impairment. SLI is only diagnosable by EXCLUSION 8% - 12% of preschoolers demonstrate some type of language disorder.
Chronological age as compared to mental age is a better comparative point because of the fact that language learning is age-predictable.
Normal performance IQ scores are used because it doesn’t bias the results for a child with a language disorder there are different types of SLI. There could be expressive only or there would be expressive-receptive there could be complex SLI.
Expressive Only focuses on syntax and morphology which affect the expressive modality.
Expressive-Receptive SLI both expressive and receptive modality in primarily syntax and morphology
Complex SLI the deficit is not limited to morphology and syntax but GRAMMATICAL MORPHOLOGY is the HALLMARK for SLI so Complex SLI is more of a ‘what else’ e.g. child might additionally have a vocabulary deficit.
If you watch the trajectory for development of individual children over time who have SLI they are not identical there are strengths and needs that change over time they catch up and eventually it becomes grammatical morphology.
Remission common for 1/3 of kids from ages 4 – 5 ½ years SLI not typically diagnosed until age 3 then around 4 – 5 ½ years it may go into remission don’t have a fool proof method for determining who may fall into the 1/3 who go into remission.
What does remission look like? Can be observed over time a trend toward more normal limits remission = normalization = children have to catch up though which means they are STILL not MAKING GROUND they are falling FURTHER AND FURTHER behind. Need to make progress at FASTER rate to catch up to peers.
Receptive language is harder to test than expressive language. You can HEAR expressive. Can HEAR IT can RECORD it but receptive language is IMPLICIT in what the child does or in response to a question. Kids are clever and can fool us very easily ie: comprehension strategies – kids age 2 do not understand everything we say to them but may appear to.
Kids who do not really understand but APPEAR to are using a mechanism called a COMPREHENSION STRATEGY – using what they DO know to figure out what they DON’T know. Young kids are making CONNECTIONS between events but that doesn’t mean they truly ‘understand.’
There are many kids who we think only have expressive language problems but they may have receptive language problems too if a report states the kid only has one or the other and one is within normal limits TEST AGAIN. Could be WRONG.
When a parent believes a two year old child is ‘understanding’ it could just be cocktail party speech not very meaningful or connected to the context receptive problems might exist all by themselves. If really and truly dealing with a child who has difficulties with expressive only and no receptive component that child has a greater likelihood of normalization faster than a child with both expressive and receptive. Fewer probs = normalize quicker.
If the receptive modality is truly intact and it is JUST an expressive problem that is a good prognostic sign but that DOESN’T mean they don’t need therapy… just that they are likely to catch up quicker. The kid with expressive SLI will catch up quicker… these kids have the internal model = their receptive is just fine. If a kid has expressive and receptive concerns they lack the internal model.
Late talkers … do not diagnose until age 3 HOWEVER kids that seem to be behind before age 3 are called LATE TALKERS. These are kids who are delayed in production of the first 50 words in their expressive vocabulary and production of word combinations. if you reach age two and do not have at LEAST 50 words in your EXPRESSIVE vocabulary and you AREN’T producing any TWO WORD COMBINATIONS then you are a LATE TALKER.
50 words in expressive vocabulary are actually NOTHING most kids have way more 50 IS BARE MINIMUM
Late talkers also usually have under developed phonological systems = they do NOT possess a complete PHONEMIC inventory they do not have all sounds of language but rather a very restricted set of sounds and syllable shapes that they use.
Late Talkers may also have immature play behaviors ie may not include a routine from daily life and pretend upon stuffed animals use one object in place of another take the little plate and turn it into a Frisbee or a funnel into a hat.
A large number of Late Talkers will become kids with SLI but we don’t diagnose until age 3 but then ¾ to ½ of them catch up yet some don’t so parents need to know that when a child has language difficulty in preschool they may have ongoing language issues – may catch up but then may have to catch up AGAIN.
Who is MOST AT RISK with regard to Late Talkers? A child who has probs with BOTH expressive and receptive is more at risk because they lack the internal model. If a kid has good receptive language, they have the internal model.
A kid with expressive problems only has the receptive internal model for language and they have therefore a better chance for normalization. If the receptive modality is truly intact that is a good prognostic indicator but that doesn't mean they don't need therapy.
If a kid has a male family member with a history of language learning disorder then that child is 5x more likely to be diagnosed with SLI - there is a strong genetic component to language disorders.
If a child is a late talker and the move into the SECOND HALF of preschool with no improvement by age 4, they are likely to be labeled SLI provided that these can be ruled out and are exclusionary: normal hearing, normal performance IQs (85 or higher) no emotional/behavioral problem is evident, no severe intelligibility deficit, no evidence of neurological deficits, and no psycho-social ASD
SLI looks like DIFFICULTIES WITH GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES (rule governed system) Delayed syntax, delayed vocab, immature narrative skills at age 4 plus late talker
Some Late Talkers 0 - 3 catch up, others remain in steady state or fall further behind. Kids who are Late Talkers but who use gesture communicatively are more likely to catch up
Amy Weatherbee - author and researcher = thinks Autism can be diagnosed in first year of life via protoimperatives and protodeclaratives = communicative intent - lack of this shows abnormal language development in terms of early intentionality. Showing versus sharing. Kids will try to declar intention before they begin to speak.
Vocabulary and Grammatical Morphemes both important in terms of measuring language development Use a prevention model - over-treat rather than under-treat - kids catch up quicker with therapy.
SLI sticks around - a continuous problem - a problem of long standing. A lot of kids diagnosed with SLI at age 3 become the kids on the caseloads in 2nd or 3rd grade because of Illusory Recovery. It may LOOK like they caught up, but then when the literacy upswing happens, they have to catch up all over again and end up back on caseloads.
Birth to 2 trajectory is almost vertical, then levels off and then upsweeps again at the onset of literacy. To keep kids from incurring the Illusory Recovery, consider keeping kids on with an RTI even if they don't qualify for a caseload. Look at early reading tests, level of phonological awareness, can they identify letters of the alphabet, do they have word recognition skills if they can't keep up with preliteracy=RTI
What are the etiologies for SLI? Auditory processing speed? Poor non-verbal skills (mountain task) Cognitive ability to use working memory to hold symbols in mind long enough to solve metacognitive problems? It is NOT typically an impoverished language learning environment. Could be that grammatical morphemes are just very difficult to learn! Could be a genetic marker but that isn't even definitive - environment could suppress it. No certain etiology.
Extended Optional Infinitive EOI all kids go through a period of time where they don't mark verbs (uniflected) but kids with SLI have a particularly hard time with learning obligatory rules, and in African American English the 3rd person (s) is not obligatory.
Implicit Rule Deficit Kids with SLI may be genetically incapable of generating verb tense and number markers/agreement. ?
FOXP2 a genetic marker that may indicate SLI or propensity for it
Grammatical morpheme markers are difficult because they are not very salient easy to miss, not just because processing isn't rapid enough, not loud enough, not stressed, shorter in duration, typically unstressed, so difficult to perceive and learn and are on the ends of words.
In therapy make sure that grammatical morpheme markers are said with loner duration, more loudly and with emphasis so that they become FOREGROUND information and not background information.
When you are transcribing the speech of a young child, or glossing what the child said, be careful that you don't include grammatical morpheme markers that weren't there. Be cautious about 'what you EXPECTED to hear.'
Kids with SLI with regard to Pragmatics Kids with SLI may have Pragmatics as their strong suit, or, they could be just as lost.
Kids with SLI with regard to vocabulary acquisition? Kids with SLI with regard to vocabulary are slower with vocabulary acquisition especially in the first 10 words which happen painfully slow and then still in the next 40 as well.
Kids with SLI also por phonlogical memory skills It is difficult for them to parse words correctly, not just the sound set being familiar, but holding it in memory long enough to decode it in a sentence, compare it to what has been heard before/hard to understand...
SLI kids have very poor non-word recognition skills - cant tell if it is a non-word ie: fleen Repeating of non-words is difficult for them. Fleen COULD be a word in English, doesn't violate any phonotactical constraints, but have a hard time repeating it back to you because they have nothing to compare it to.
SLI kids are bad at fast mapping - this is a semantic skill - a strategy for learning new words requires risk taking behaviors which SLI kids are hesitant to do SLI kids don't take in the context and don't take risks with language - hearing a word one time and saving it for a similar context to use later on.
SLI kids have an Immature Repertoire of Syntactic Structures. TLD kids might be using imbedded clauses but instead SLI would be using simple, active, declarative sentences possibly with rising intonation to indicate questions or requests. They don't make good use of context clues to determine what we would be talking about in a given situation.
SLI kids with Phonology - variability in phonology leads to problems with intelligiblity more apt to use idiosyncratic phonology - their OWN patterns. Phonological problems and language difficulties go hand in hand. ie: delete FC and so miss the grammatical marker.
1/3 of kids with Phonological Problems have difficulties with: Receptive Language
Must RULE OUT HEARING LOSS. If a kid has Hearing Loss, they are NOT SLI, but you need to know what you are dealing with in terms of hearing acuity.
Some kids can't expect normalization - can expect a functional outcome though. nguage that will be useful in daily living activities (only in extreme situations though)
Habilitation = LEARNING SOMETHING FOR THE FIRST TIME. Habilitation: learning something for the first time.
What is TLD for vocabulary up to age 2? Mayo Clinic will say has 50 diff words but REALLY a typical 2 year old will have a range btw 75 - 225 words, so 50 is REALLY REALLY LOW.
If kids don't have 50 words by age two, they are Late Talkers and may require early intervention Not good for people to go looking online and find that their kid only needs to be speaking 50 words - false sense of security and kid may be missing out on services.
Receptive Vocabulary should be CONSIDERABLY LARGER than expressive vocabulary. Receptive vocab is hard to measure tho because kids are very good at using the little bit of knowledge they have to go a long way.
Etiology? Can't always tell the parent the cause Can't always state the cause, but through assessment we can determine if it relates to hearing.
How long do we have to treat kids, continuity? It depends on the age of the child - if talking to the parents of a late talker some studies have shown that there are high rates of spontaneous remission especially for those who use gesture communicatively.
If a child has a difficult time learning oral language though there is a good chance they may similarly have problems when it comes to learning reading and written forms of language.
Parents play an important role in habilitiation - doing something for the first time: What kids need for language learning is an OPPORTUNITY TO PRACTICE in MEANINGFUL COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTIONS. Meaningful input is when language matches the CONTEXT - LANGUAGE LEARNING IS MAPPING WORDS ONTO CONTEXT. Providing a match btw them.
Parents' role in Habilitation: designed to help families who may not be mainstream in their perception of things like 'who leads the conversation." MacDonald and Carroll, 1992
Let there be BALANCE in conversation Equal Egalitarian - Let the conversation be child directed, respond to child interests, mirror what the child does
Mirroring - lets the child know that what they are doing is a valid contribution to conversations Mirroring
Create balance in who initiates contact busy yourself with something that will entice them kids should not always be on the receiving end of conversations - let them initiate too.
Give kids opportunities to participate = expand the RESPONSE LATENCY (silence.) Don't always rely on questioning and give more response latency than you would for an adult. Try commenting or elicit their comments by doing in interesting task.
Establish joint focus and sustain joint activities. Think about how can I sustain the child's interest figure, conversation is fostered by context, so kep the context going. Facilitates child's understanding that conversation is something to SUSTAIN, not a constant change of turn, topic, context.
Match the child's communicative mode = be with the child where they 'are' use what the child is using in terms of vocalizations, gestures,, words, but be just a little above their ability because of the need to help them with successive approximations recognize child has a skill set and find the middle ground respect them as a communicative partner so that the child has a role to play.
Give child some options - ideas of what could be said next to keep the conversation going build something similar to what the child could do - stay within child's ability range.
RESPONSIVENESS IS KEY - rate that a caregiver responds to a child's interests and the pace of their activity. Slow down your pace so that the child feels comfortable taking a turn and respond to the child's actions as turn taking events.
You could use self-talk or parallel talk Oh, you just handed me the green block - now, what could I do with the green block?
Remember, if you don't respond to gesture, you miss out on a lot you miss out on a rich communicative life that the child may have.
Using Motherese attracts and maintains child attention use it. Be animated.
Follow the child's lead. Let the child choose the topic and COMMENT more rather than using questions or commands. Some questions are good though because 1) they turn the floor over to the other conversational partner and 2) we often include more sophisticated vocabulary in our questions and it gives opportunity to learn more sophisticated language structures.
Set up bonified reasons for questions though - lots of kids don't want to answer questions they know you have the answer to Real questions are more like natural conversation and that is the goal.
Building balanced interactions can sometimes require a third person to deliver prompts
Don't elaborate your turn - keep it simple and limit it to ONE THING at the child's level of understanding or maneuverability and then WAIT. If the child is 'awed' by your turn, they won't know what to do next.
Build balanced interactions with kids - set up first/next scenarios we are going to work with all these materials they can choose order, or it can be preset
Treat whatever the communication is as meaningful. One of the tricky things about EXPANSION: IS THAT YOU NEED TO MODEL A GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT PRODUCTION OF WHAT THE CHILD MEANT. Keep it simple so that you have a better chance of getting close to the child's intention. ie: Ducky no.
S.O.U.L Silence, Observation, Understanding, Listening be reactive, be responsive, allow child equal partnership in communication.
Assessment: Think Pragmatics: How does the clinent use whatever language and communicative capacities they have IN CONTEXT. Children with language impairments differ the most from each other in terms of their language USE/pragmatics.
Can't use obtained scores on syntax, morphology,, etc. to reference or guess how kids will USE language.
Conversational Assertiveness: the ABILITY and/or WILLINGNESS to take an UNSOLICITED conversational turn (nobody asked, but I am telling you.)
Conversational Responsiveness: The ABILITY or WILLINGNESS to respond to conversational bids from the conversational partner (ie: requests for info, request for clarification (client recognizes that part of their obligation is to respond when asked to respond
4 categories that relate to conversational assertiveness or responsiveness dictate how people USE language but there is a lot of variability within the four areas.
ACTIVE CONVERSATIONALISTS Assertive and Responsive. They understand both roles but can use code switching to be more or less in certain contexts. Kids have more trouble with this may only know one way to be assertive or not know when to be responsive.
PASSIVE CONVERSATIONALIST Not very assertive, but do respond.
Kids may be assertive or responseive in varying degrees, means 'not always' just 'tend' to do this behavior so collect samples with a number of different conversation partners in diff settings and code them as assertive, responsive, or performative (there are many ways to code.)
Sometimes kids comments may only be tangentially related and not really related and then it is an irrelevant comment not to be considered as an effective means of communicating. Remember it is NOT just about the utterance, it is about what the kid is DOING in the conversation.
How to calculate relative assertiveness: number of assertive utterances produced by the child and divide by the total number o assertives produced by all participants and multiply by 100% if close to 50% then kid is holding their own and if closer to 100% the kid is assertive bordering on dominating the conversation. Older child w/ younger older may be more assertive. In some contexts level may vary.
In some contexts the child is able to be assertive this is a foundational piece to discourse competencies topic management and how to add in a relevant manner. Discourse competencies, diff levels of assertiveness depending on contenxt.
To be responsive or assertive does not require verbalizations.



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