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CIT292 Ch 3 and 4

CIT292 Network Security Key Terms Chapters 3 and 4

TermDefinition
hardening Act of configuring OS security, updating it, creating rules and policies to help govern system in a secure manner and removing unnecessary apps and services
service pack (SP) Group of updates, bug fixes, updated drivers, and security fixes that are installed in one downloadable package or one disc.
Hotfix Single problem fixing patch to an individual OS or application installed live while system up and running without reboot. Now varies from vendor to vendor.
Patch Update to a system. Patches generally carry the connotation of a small fix in the mind of the user or system admin, so larger patches ofter referred to as software updates or service packs.
Patch Management Planning, testing, implementing, and auditing of patches.
Group Policy Used in Microsoft environments to govern user and computer accounts through a set of rules.
Security Template Groups of policies that can be loaded in one procedure.
Baselining Process of measuring changes in networking, hardware, software, and so on.
Virtualization Creation of a virtual entity, as opposed to a true or actual entity.
Virtual Machine (VM) Created by virtual software; images of OS's or individual apps.
Hypervisor Portion of virtual machine software that allows multiple virtual operating systems (guests) to run at same time on single computer.
Cookies Text files placed on client computer that store information about it, which could include computer browsing habits and credentials. Used by spyware to collect info about users activities. Session cookies used by attacker to hijack session.
Buffer overflow Process stores data outside memory that developer intended. Could cause erratic behavior in application, especially if memory already had data in it.
UAC User Account Control Security component of Windows Vista that keeps every user (not Admin account) in standard user mode instead of administrator with full administrative rights - even if member of administrators group.
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Process of creating systems and apps, and the methodologies used to do so. Separated into six phases: Planning and analysis, system design, implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance.
Secure Code Review In-depth code inspection procedure.
Secure Coding Concepts Best practice used during the life cycle of software development.
Fuzz Testing (fuzzing) When random data is input into computer program to find vulnerabilities.
cross-site scripting (XSS) Type of vulnerability found in web apps used with session hijacking.
Cross-site request forgery (XSRF) Attack that exploits the trust a website has in a user's browser in attempt to transmit unauthorized commands to website.
Input validation Also know as data validation is a process that ensures the correct usage of data.
Sandbox When web script runs in its own environment for the express purpose of not interfering with other processes, possibly for testing.
Directory traversal Also known as ../ (dot dot slash) attack method of accessing unauthorized parent directories.
Zero day attack Attack executed on a vulnerability in software before that vulnerability is known to the creator of the software.
Created by: Leisac