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Immunology 1 Pract1

Practice for Immunology 1 class, test 1, DelTech Owens Campus

QuestionAnswer
What is immunology? The study of the reaction when the host encounters a foreign substance.
What is an antigen? The foreign substance that causes the response. It can refer to a pathogen or to a part of the pathogen that binds to a specific antibody.
Antigens are usually thought of as __ agents, like bacteria or viruses. infectious
Aside from infectious agents like microbes, antigens can also be __ __ or __ __. environmental substances or synthetic structures
Antigens/epitopes are specific __ that bind to specific __ like a lock and a key. proteins, antibodies
What is immunity? The discrimination between self and nonself and protection from nonself.
What is the immune system? A system of processes and structures that protect an organism from disease.
There are 2 kinds of basic immune systems in the body. What are they called? 1. Innate (or natural) immune system 2. acquired (or adaptive) immune system.
The first line of defense against antigens in the body is the __ immune system. innate
Which of the 2 basic immune systems is very specific? acquired immune system
Which immune system is available to defend the body quickly? innate immune system
Cells that can attack one pathogen cannot attack another. This describes which immune system? acquired
Which immune system has defenses that are not specific to the pathogen in question? innate
Which immune system is large in scope and even able to attack invaders that don't exist yet? acquired
Which immune system can discriminate? acquired
Which immune system has memory? acquired
Which immune system prevents entry of pathogens by separating the inside of the body from the outside? innate
Name 5 structural barriers that prevent pathogens from entering the body. 1. skin 2. cough reflex 3. sneeze 4. mucus and cilia 5. ear wax
The __ of sweat, sebaceous glands, the vagina and stomach, are all examples of chemical influences that prevent microbes from harming the body. acidity, or pH
What is the name of an antibacterial enzyme in the skin, stomach, and tears that prevent infections? lysozyme
What kind of bacteria in the stomach prevent harmful bacteria from growing there? normal flora
Bacteria - including normal flora (the good bacteria) - are affected by __. antibiotics
What are the 2 basic components of the innate immune system? 1. cellular component and 2. the humoral component of the blood
The humoral component of the innate immune system is in the __ phase of the blood. fluid
When blood clots, the fluid phase of the blood is called ? serum
If anticoagulants prevent blood from clotting, the fluid phase of the blood is called ? plasma
Which of the 2 fluid phases of the blood (serum or plasma) lacks clotting factors? serum
Why does serum lack clotting factors? Serum has been allowed to clot. So the factors have all joined the clot and been used up.
Serum plus clotting factors is called ? plasma
Clotted plasma yields ? serum
The cells in the cellular component of blood include what 3 basic types? Granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes
Name 3 cells of the innate immune system found in body tissues. Macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells
White blood cells are differentiated from each other by surface __. markers
Blood cell markers are prefixed with the letters "CD." What does CD stand for? cluster of differentiation
Helper cells have what kind of CD markers? CD4
Suppressor cells have what kind of CD markers? CD8
All white blood cells have what kind of CD marker? CD45+
All granulocytes have what 2 kinds of CD markers? CD 45+ (like all WBCs) and CD 15+
Neutrophils are __ staining. neutral (granules do not stain under Wright stain)
Basophils are __ staining. blue (granules turn dark blue under Wright stain)
Eosinophils are __ staining. red (granules turn bright red under Wright stain)
Which is the most abundant granulocyte? Neutrophils
Which granulocyte makes up 50%-70% of WBCs? Neutrophils
Which cells are the first to enter the site of an acute infection? Neutrophils
How long do neutrophils live in the circulating blood? 12 hours
How long do neutrophils live in the tissues? 1-2 days
Like macrophages, neutrophils attack pathogens by activating a __ __. respiratory burst
Neutrophils are attracted to the site of an infection by __. chemotaxins
Neutrophils are active in phagocytosis and in __ presentation. antigen
Which granulocyte is involved in antiparasitic repsonses and allergic reactions? eosinophils
Which granulcyte makes up 1%-3% of all WBCs? eosinophils
Which is the rarest granulocyte? basophils
Which granulocyte only makes up .4%-1% of WBCs? basophils
Basophil counts may increase under what 4 conditions? 1. Leukemia 2. allergy 3. chronic inflammation 4. radiation therapy
What WBC looks like a basophil but comes from a different cell line? mast cell
Mast cells possess granules of __ and __. histamine and heparine
In what 3 places can mast cells be found in the body? 1. tissues 2. connective tissues 3. mucosal surfaces
What is the primary role of mast cells? allergic and antiparasitic reactions
Mast cells have surface receptors for what kind of immunoglobulin? IgE
What kind of WBC is known to be fixed or free-floating? macrophages
Macrophages are only called macrophages in body __? tissue
What are macrophages called in the circulating blood? monocytes
What are macrophages called in the liver? Kupfer cells
What are macrophages called in neural tissues? microglial cells
In connective tissues, macrophages are called ? histiocytes
In bone, macrophages are called ? osteoclasts
In the kidneys, macrophages are known as ? mesanglial cells
Macrophages are called __ __ or __ __ in the lungs. alveolar macrophages or dust cells
In cases of heart disease, macrophages that are found in a plaque of atherosclerosis are called ? foam cells
Which CD marker can be found on the surface of macrophages? CD14+
Macrophages make up what percentage of WBCs? 4%-6%
Macrophages are important in __ presentation. antigen
How long can macrophages live? several months
Name 3 things that can cause macrophages to increase in number. 1. inflammation 2. infection 3. certain cancers
Dendritic cells are very active in __ and __ presentation. phagocytosis and antigen presentation
Dendritic cells are found in __ concentration while in the body tissues. low
In the blood stream, dendritic cells can be found in their __ state. immature
In the body tissues, dendritic cells can be found in a __ state. mature
Dendritic cells express which surface marker? CD11c+
Unlike most lymphocytic cells, __ __ cells are not antigen specific. natural killer
Natural Killer (NK) cells kill what kinds of cells? tumor cells and virally infected cells
NK cells can respond to __ and __ infections. bacterial and protozoan
Which CD markers are expressed in the surface of NK cells? CD3-, CD56+, CD16+
NK cells look like big __. monocytes
NK cells make __ __ with cells they need to kill off. direct contact
NK cells secrete __ and __ that can kill other cells once they make direct contact. perforins and granzymes
NK cells can also kill other cells through __. antibody directed cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
NK cells have surface receptors for cytokine __. cytokine IL-2
NK cells form, or turn into, __ cells. LAK (Lymphokine Activated Killer) cells
Transforming into LAK cells makes NK cells more __ at killing a pathogen. efficient
LAK cells are used in what kind of therapy? cancer
What are the 3 classes of molecules found in the innate immune system? 1. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) 2. those produced in response to infection 3. complement proteins
Name 3 kinds of molecules that are produced in response to infection. 1. cytokines 2. antimicrobial peptides 3. acute phase reactants
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) recognize __ __ expressed in groups of microorganisms. surface molecules
PRRs can be found on the __ of cells or in a molecule's __. surface, solution
PRRs are involved in __ and __ release. phagocytosis and cytokine release
When found in the molecule's solution, PRRs are called __ __ __. acute phase reactants
Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) are PRRs that are involved in telling the immune system what to __. kill or target
There are __ TLRs. 12
Each TLR binds to a different ? pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)
When TLRs bind to PAMPs, the process causes __, __ __ __, and __. inflammation, immune cell proliferation, chemotaxis
Acute phase reactants bind to the __ __ of a microbe. cell wall
Acute phase reactants increase the __ of the cell membrane to kill the pathogen. permeability
Acute phase reactants are usually composed of less than __ amino acids. 100
Acute phase reactants have 2 major families of antimicrobial peptides. What are they called? defensins and cathelicidins
Denfensins and cathelicidins have similar functions but different __ __. secondary structures
Acute phase reactants are produced by __ __ and __. epithelial cells and phagocytes
Acute phase reactants provide protection for __ surfaces. epithelial
Production of acute phase reactants can be stimulated by __. cytokines
Acute phase reactants may cause __ associated with increased ESRs. inflammation
C-reactive proteins, alpha-1 acid glycoproteins, haptoglobulin, fibrinogen, serum amyloid A and complement are all examples of ? acute phase reactants
__ __ __ are sensitive indicators of inflammation and can be used as a measure of cardiovascular disease. C-reactive proteins
C-reactive proteins react with __ of __. C-polysaccaride of S. pneumonia
C-reactive proteins activate __. complement
C-reactive proteins are __. opsonins
C-reactive proteins enhance cellular __ effects on pathogens. cytotoxic
Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein is elevated in some __ __. autoimmune disorders
Alpha-1 acid glycoproteins are produced in the __. liver
What is the primary function of alph-1 acid glycoproteins? inhibition of progesterone and other drugs
Haptoglobin binds to free __ released by intravascular hemolysis. hemoglobin
__ is an antioxidant. Haptoglobin
Haptoglobin protects against what 2 things? 1. kidney damage 2. iron loss
Serum Amyloid A is associated with what in the blood? high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Serum Amyloid A transports __ to the liver. cholesterol
Serum Amyloid A repairs tissues damaged by __. infection
Serum Amyloid A is involved in bringing cells to the site of an __. infection
What are the 3 pathways of activation of the complement system? 1. classical 2. alternative 3. lectin
The 3 pathways of complement system activation differ in formation of __ __. After this step, all 3 pathways are the same. C3 convertase
The classical pathway of complement activation only works with an __ bound to an antigen. antibody
B cells become __ cells during antigen presentation. plasma
Plasma cells create __. antibodies
Inflammation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis are all processes of the __ __ __. innate immune system
Inflammation helps bring the immune response to the __. infection
__ repairs damage and removes debris caused by an infection. Inflammation
What are the 5 symptoms of inflammation? Redness, swelling, heat, pain, loss of function
Inflammation leads to __ migrated to the site, followed by __. neutrophils, macrophages
Inflammation leads to increased __ __ and capillary __ at the affected area. blood supply and capillary permeability
Chemical __ start and stop inflammation. mediators
__ __ bring cells to phagocitize invaders. Chemotactic factors
Complement pathway product and cytokines are all __ __. chemotactic factors
The process where in a leukocyte engulfs, digests, and kills a microbe is called ? phagocytosis
Opsonins is a Greek word meaning what? to prepare for food
WBCs attack to particles using __ that bind to __ and __. PRRs, PAMPS, opsonins
Some pathogens can actually survive in __ cells and spread infection as they ride around. phagocytic
The acquired (or adaptive) immune system has the following 4 characteristics: 1. specific 2. large scope 3. discrimination between self and nonself 4. memory
__ are the primary WBCs of the acquired immune system. Lymphocytes (T and B cells)
T and B cells makes up __% of circulating WBCs. 20%
Lymphocytes (including T and B cells) are almost all __. nucleus
Lymphocytes arise from __ __ __. hematopoietic stem cells
Lymphocytes differentiate into T and B cells in __ __ organs. primary lymphoid
T and B cells are named for their location of __. maturation
T cells become mature in the __. thymus
B cells become mature in the __ __. bone marrow
Remember that the acquired immune system has two arms: what are they? 1. humoral arm 2. cellular arm
The humoral arm of the acquired immune system uses B cells to offer __ __ immunity. antibody mediated
The cellular arm of the acquired immune system offers __ __ __ immunity. T cell mediated
__ __ make antibodies that help WBCs attach to antigens. B cells
The molecule that allows B cells to recognize antigens is called a ? surface immunoglobulin
The molecule that allows T cells to recognize antigens is called a ? T cell receptor
Immunoglobulin molecules, gamma globulins, and antibodies are all the __. same
Gamma globulins were given the name "gamma" because they move __ than albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, or beta globulins. slower
Name the 5 types of antibody molecules. IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE (MADGE)
In serum protein __, serum proteins separate into 5 proteins. electrophoresis
B cells produce antibodies in response to the antigen that binds specifically to the __ __ on the B cells. surface immunoglobulin
B cells express what surface markers? CD19, CD20, CD21
T cells do not make __. antibodies
T cells respond to antigens that are bound to their __ __ __. T cells receptors
T cells are presented with an antigen by an __ __ cell. antigen presenting
What is antigen presentation? A cell of the innate immune system presents an antigen to the cells (lymphocytes) of the acquired immune system.
Eosinophil granules turn red under Wright staining because they are chemically __. acidic
Basophil granules turn blue-black under Wright staining because they are chemically __. basic
Which WBC is responsible for most of the effects of allergic reactions? Mast cells
Which is more important in antigen presentation: neutrophils or macrophages? macrophages
NK cells are __ and more __ than T or B cells. larger and more granular
Perforins secreted by NK cells __ antigen cells, causing leakage and lysis. perforate
If the innate immune system is non-specific, why doesn't it (normally) attack cells that belong in the body? It recognizes PAMPs (surface molecules) on infectious microbes
The cellular arm of the acquired immune system responds to antigens bound to the cell's __ __ __. T cell receptor
Aside from T cell receptors, what is required for a cell of the acquired immune system to respond to an antigen? Cytokines and other molecules
What antigens play a role in the rejection or acceptance of tissue grafts? Major Histocompatibility Complex (compatability = rejection or acceptance) (Histo = grafts)
Major Histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) are genetically __ molecules. inherited
MHCs are important in __ __ and the immune response. antigen presentation
Name 3 cells that play a part in the cellular arm of the acquired immune system. 1. Helper T cells 2. T Cytotoxic cells 3. Regulatory cells
What cell produces cytokines that can upregulate the acquired immune response? Helper T cells
What cell produces direct cytotoxicity of cells bearing an antigen? T cytotoxic cells
What cell produces cytokines that downregulate the acquired immune response? Regulatory T cells
T helper cells respond to specific antigens that are bound to their __. TCR (T cell receptors)
T helper cells respond not only to antigens bound to their TCRs, but to the __ __ __ molecule of the antigen presenting cell. MHC class II
T cytotoxic cells respond to a specific antigen bound to their TCR AND to the __ __ __ molecule of the antigen presenting cell. MHC class I
T regulatory cells bind to their specific antigen (only one) through their __. TCR (T cell receptors)
T regulatory cells bind to their specific antigen through their TCR in MHC class __ molecules and sometimes to MHC class __ molecules of the antigen presenting cell. MHC class II and sometimes MHC class I
What surface markers do T cell receptors express? CD3+
T helper cells express __ surface markers. CD4+
T cytotoxic cells express __ surface markers. CD8+
T regulatory cells usually express what kind of surface marker? CD4+
Some T regulatory cells express __ surface markers instead of CD4+. CD8+
The primary surface marker that identifies T regulatory surface markers is called what? FoxP3+
There are 2 classes of lymphoid organs. What are they? Primary and secondary
Primary lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes mature into __, __, and __ cells. T Cells, B cells, and NK cells
Secondary lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes __ __. meet antigens
Lymphocytes are differentiated in the __ lymphoid organs. primary
Lymphocytes are still generated, in their immature forms, in the __ __. bone marrow
The __ and the __ __ constitute the primary lymphoid tissues involved in the production and early selection of lymphocytes. thymus and bone marrow
The thymus makes __ cells and the bone marrow makes __ cells. T cells, B cells
The bone marrow contains __ stem cells that can become any cell type. hematopoietic
What 5 types of cells are contained in the bone marrow? 1. HSCs 2. Macrophages 3. Stromal cells 4. Connective tissue 5. Adipocytes
The thymus is a __-lobed organ below the __ and over the __. bi-lobed, thyroid, heart
The thymus is about __ grams at birth and grows to __ grams at puberty. 22 grams, 35 grams
After puberty, the thyroid __ in size. decreases
When measured relative to the size of the body, the thymus is __ at birth. largest
Lymphoid progenitor cells enter the thymus from the bone marrow at the __. cortex
Developing T-cells in the bone marrow are referred to as __ and are of hematopoietic origin. thymocytes
Thymic stromal cells include thymic __ __ cells, __ __ __ cells, and __ cells. cortical epithelial cells, thymic medullary epithelial cells, dendritic cells
Cells in the thymus can be divided into __ __ __ and cells of __ origin. thymic stromal cells, hematopoietic
Thymic __ __ between the thymic cortex and medulla help thymocytes mature. nurse cells
Secondary lymphoid organs maintain mature lymphocytes and initiate an __ __ __. acquired immune response
Lymphocytes meet trapped __ in the secondary lymphoid organs. pathogens
Lymphocytes respond to only __ antigen and proliferate if it is present. one
Antigens are brought to the lymph nodes by __ cells. phagocytic
Lymphocytes circulate through lymphatic __ and __ lymphatic organs. vessels, secondary
After meeting an antigen in a secondary lymphatic organs, what kind of cells will proliferate? B and T cells
B cells make __. antibodies
T cells make __ or __ responses. cytotoxic (CD8) or helper (CD4)
B and T cells mature by __ __. somatic mutation
What are the secondary lymphoid organs? 1. lymph nodes 2. spleen 3. tonsils 4. mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) 5. Skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT)
Lymph nodes are located where __ vessels meet. lymphatic
Lymph nodes __ in size when lymphocytes proliferate in reaction to their antigens. increase
The spleen __ antigens from the blood stream. captures
Circulating lymphocytes can __ antigens in the spleen. meet
The spleen __ aging red blood cells. removes
The spleen can be found on the upper __ side behind the stomach. left
In what secondary lymphatic organ does the inside of the body meet the outside world? Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
Aside from MALT, what other __-associated lymphoid tissues exist? Respiratory-associated lymphoid tissue (RALT), Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), Urogenital-associated lymphoid tissue, skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT)
__ __ uses fluorescently labeled antibodies to find CD markers. flow cytometry
Flow cytometry can detect the presence of what 5 things? 1. leukemia 2. lymphoma 3. myeloma 4. HIV 5. other immunodeficiency diseases
PAMPS are only found on __, not on cells in the body. pathogens
While WBCs working for the innate immune system recognize pathogens by their antigen epitopes, WBCs working for the innate immune system recognize pathogen __. PAMPs (Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern)
Innate WBCs can recognize pathogens with PAMPs using special receptors called __. PRRs (Pathogen Recognition Receptors)
PRRs trigger both __ and __ responses. immune and inflammatory
Antibodies are key to helping us fight __ and to many diagnostic tests. infection
Testing for antibodies can help us find the specific __ that may be causing a patient's disease. antigen
What is serology? The study of the reaction and properties of the serum components of the blood.
Serology deals mostly with antibody and antigen reactions __ __. in vitro (outside of the body)
Your A/G ration is your ration of __ to __. albumin to gamma
What does Fc stand for? Fragment crystallizable
What does Fab stand for? Fragment antigen binding
The enzyme papain can be used to cleave an __ __ into two Fab fragments and an Fc fragment. immunoglobulin monomer
The enzyme pepsin cleaves below the hinge region of an __, so a F(ab')2 fragment and a pFc' fragment is formed. immunoglobulin, antibody, or gammaglobulin
The __ is the part of the pathogen or antigen that the immunoglobulin binds to. epitope
The __ region of an antibody molecule binds to the epitope of an antigen. variable
The __ is the part of the antibody's variable region that fits onto an antigen's epitope like a key fits into a lock. paratope
Which part of the antibody gives it the designation of IgM, IgA, etc.? constant region
The antibody's constant region can be found on the __ chain. heavy
What binds the heavy and light chains of an antibody together? disulfide bond
Don't forget that antibodies, immunoglobulins, and gammaglobulins are all the __. same
Papain cuts __ the disulfide bond on the constant region of an antibody. above
Pepsin cuts __ the disulfide bond on the constant region of an antibody. This keeps the variable regions together. below
The variable area on the immunoglobulin that binds the epitope to the antigen is called ? paratope
How strong is the noncovalent bond between the antibody paratope and the antigen's epitope? very weak
What do you call the "sum of the attractive interaction between [a] paratope and the epitop"e? Binding affinity
What do you call the "sum of the binding of all the paratopes and epitopes" between the antibody and the antigen? Binding avidity
Affinity describes the strength of a __ bond, whereas avidity describes the total strength of __ the bonds possible between an antibody and an epitope. single, all
How many domains does the constant region of an antibody have? 3 or 4
What are the 5 basic immunoglobulin molecules? IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
What are some simple mnemonics to help you remember the 5 basic immunoglobulin molecules? MADGE, GAMED
Which of the 5 antibodies provides the majority of antibody-based immunity? IgG
Which of the 5 antibodies is transferred from mother to baby? IgG (IgG crosses the placenta during Gestation)
Which of the 5 antibodies looks like 2 IgG's stuck back to back? IgA
Which of the 5 antibodies looks like 5 IgG's stuck together in a ring? IgM
Which is the first antibody produced? IgM
Which antibody is B cell maturation marker? IgD
What other antibody can be coexpressed by a B cell besides an IgD? IgM
What is IgD's function in B cells? It activates B cells
Which is the largest antibody? IgM
Which antibody functions in antiparasitic and allergic responses? IgE
Which antibody is expressed by mast cells and basophils? IgE
Which antibody has low affinity (a weak bond per paratope) but high avidity (a strong overall bond) due to is many paratopes? IgM
80% of the immunoglobulins in blood serum is ? IgG
Which is the smallest of the 5 antibodies? (HINT: It's so small it can cross the placenta in utero.) IgG
Which antibody might transfer from mother to baby in breast milk? IgA
How many subclasses of IgG are there? 4
Which immunoglobulin has the 2nd highest serum concentration? IgA
Which antibody: opsonizes, activates complement, neutralizes toxins and viruses, enhances clearance, and has a long half life (it can last 10 years)? IgG
Which antibody is the mothers and which is the baby's? IgG=mom's IgM=baby
IgA has little function in the serum, where it has a __ shape. monomer
Where in the body is IgA produced more than any other antibody? mucosal linings
How many subclasses of IgA are there? 2
While IgA is a monomer is blood serum, it is a __ in secretions. dimer
Which antibody is in your mucus? IgA
IgA does not bind __. complement
What percentage of the antibodies in blood serum are IgM? 5-10%
IgM is a __ shaped antibody. pentamer (it's the biggest)
Which antibody is called a macroglobulin? IgM
Which antibody is best at agglutination, precipitation, and fixing complement by the classical pathway? IgM
IgM neutralizes __ and __. toxins and viruses
Which antibody is the first produced in response to an antigen? IgM
Which antibody is the first produced in a newborn? IgM
What is the half-life of an IgM antibody? 10 days
If IgM antibodies against an antigen are high, but the patient has no IgG antibodies against the same antigen, what does this tell you? This is the patient's first encounter with that pathogen
If a patient's IgG antibodies against an antigen are high, but their IgM antibodies are low, what does this tell you? This is not the patient's first encounter with that pathogen
Some pathogens don't produce a humoral (B cell) response, but do product a __ __ response. cell mediated (T cell)
IgM can be used to identify what kind of cell? B cells
IgM tells __ cells to proliferate and to differentiate. B cells
IgD antibodies make up __% of serum immunoglobulins. .2%
IgM appears on the surface of B cells first. Which antibody is next? IgD
IgD helps B cells respond to signals from ? T cells
IgD does not bind __. complement
IgD is not transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta and is not __. opsonic
Which antibody has the lowest concentration in the body? IgE
Mast cells will attach to __. IgE
IgE can be used to test for a high __ response. allergic
When IgE binds to an epitope, it causes mast cell __. degranulation
IgE plays a protective role against things that have penetrated our __ membranes. mucosa
IgE triggers an __ response, while also bringing eos and neutrophils to the area. inflammatory
IgE calls cells to the site of a __ infection, but cannot help destroy the invader. parasitic
What theory proposes how the huge and diverse immunoglobulin repetoire could exist? Clonal selection theory
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by a clone of cells called __ __. hybridoma cells
Myeloma cells have a __ in one of the pathways used to make DNA. defect
Created by: IsaacJ