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Rhetorical Devices C

Shit I need

Sentential Adverb Single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal syntax, to lend emphasis to the words immediately proximate to the adverb.
Asyndeton Omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. Gives the effect of a extemporaneous account.
Polysyndeton Use of conjunction between each word. Adds feeling of multiplicity, energetic enumeration, and building up.
Understatement Deliberately expresses an idea as less important, either for irony or politeness. Employs reader's own power of description.
Litotes A form of understatement, generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which would otherwise be used. Either retains understatement effect or intensifies the expression.
Parallelism Several parts of a sentence or sentences are expressed similarly to show an equal importance among them. Also adds balance and rhythm.
Chiasmus Reverse Parallelism. Second part is paralleled by the first but in reverse order. i.e. A-B-B-A.
Zeugma Grammatically correct linkage of two or more parts of speech by another part. e.g. One subject and 2+ verbs, one verb and 2+ objects, two subjects and 1 verb. Shows relationship clearly.
Antithesis Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often paralleled. Creates definite relationship between ideas.
Anaphora Repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, sentences.
Epistrophe Forms counterpart to anaphora, repeats same word(s) at end of successive phrases. Stresses whatever's repeated.
Anadiplosis Repeats last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at beginning of next. Done for sake of beauty or logical progression.
Conduplicatio Repeats key word instead of last word from preceding phrase, clause, or sentence. Serves as effective focusing device.
Epanalepsis Repeats beginning word of clause or sentence at the end. Calls special attention to the word.
Hypophora Raising one or more questions then proceeding to answer it. Seems natural and maintain curiosity.
Rhetorical question (erotesis) Asks question because the answer is obvious and desired. Used for effect, emphasis, or provocation/drawing conclusionary statement from facts at hand.
Procatalepsis Anticipates an objection and answers it. Permits argument to move forward while taking into account opposition and give rebuttal.
Metabasis Brief statement of what has been said and what will follow. Aka linking, running, or transitional summary. Keeps discussion ordered and clear.
Distinctio Explicit reference to particular meaning or meanings of words in order to remove ambiguity.
Amplification Repeating a word or expression while adding more detail.Done to emphasize what may have been passed over.
Scesis Onomation Emphasizes idea by expressing it in a string of generally synonymous phrases or statements. Can be emphatic if done correctly.
Apophasis (praeteritio, occupatio) Asserts or emphasizes something by seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it. Calls attention to sensitive or inflammatory statements while remaining detacched from them.
Metanoia (correctio) Qualifies statement by recalling it and expressing it in a better, milder, stronger way. Used to expand reader's belief, tone down/qualify an excessive outburtst.
Aporia Expresses doubt about an idea or conclusion. Suggests alternatives without making commitment to either or any. Ties off discussion that writer may not have time to pursue.
Simile Comparison between two things using as or if. Used as both an artistic and explanatory device, comparing an unfamiliar to a familiar thing.
Analogy Compares two things, alike in several aspects. Done to explain or clarify some unfamiliar or difficult idea by showing another object that is similar to some familiar one.
Metaphor Compares two different things by speaking of one int erms of other. Asserts that one thing is another thing. Gives clearness, charm, and distinction to style. Touches reader's imagination.
Catachresis Extravagant, implied metaphor using words in an alien way.
Synecdoche Type of metaphor in which part stands for whole, whole for part, genus for species, etc.
Metonymy Similar to synecdoche, the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with but not part of the subject. Provides different imagery.
Personification Metaphorically represents animal or inanimate object as having human attributes. Makes abstraction more clear and easier to understand.
Hyperbole Counterpart of understatement, exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect. Works to get attention out of reader.
Allusion Short, informal reference to famous person or event. Introduces variety and energy into otherwise limited discussion, almost like an analogy.
Eponym Substitutes particular attribute the name of a person associated with that.
Oxymoron Paradox reduced to two words. Usually adj-n or adv-adj relationship. Used for effect, complexity, emphasis, or wit. Produces ironic contrast to show how author's view may be misunderstood or labeled.
Epithet Adjective/adj phrase appropriately qualifying a subject by naming an important characteristic. e.g. l;aughing happiness, sneering contempt. Also works metaphorically and modifying nouns that the adj normally doesn't. Places emphasis on phrase with readers
Hyperbaton Departure from normal word order. e.g. delayed epithet with adjective following noun in order to amplify the adjective.
Parenthesis Word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as aside. Makes reader momentarily think about the statement with a pronounced effect.
Alliteration Recurrence of initial consonant sounds. Calls attention to phrase.
Onomatopoeia Sound words. Produces lively sentence and adds flavoring to words.
Apostrophe Interrupts discussion or discourse and addresses a person/personified thing. Give vent or display intense emotion.
Enthymeme Informally stated syllogism omitting either premise or conclusion. Omitted part must be understood. Assumes that omission is a truism.
Climax Arranging words, clauses, or sentences in order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis. Works with parallelism. Adds sense of continuity, order, and movement up ladder of importance.
Diacope Repetition of word/phrase after intervening word for emphasis.
Antimetabole Reversing order of repeated words (ab-ba) to intensify final formulation, present alternatives, show contrast.
Antiphrasis One word irony established by context.
Epizeuxis Repetition of one word for emphasis.
Aposiopesis Stopping abruptly and leaving a statement unfinished.
Anacoluthon Finishing a sentence with a different grammatical structure from that with which it began.
Enumeratio Detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make point more forcibly.
Antanagoge Placing good point or benefit next to a fault criticism to reduce impact of negative point.
Parataxis Writing successive independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions or no conjunctions.
Hypotaxis Using subordination to show relationship between clauses or phrases. Opposite of parataxis.
Sententia Quoting a maxim or wise saying to apply general truth to situation. Concluding or summing foregoing material by offering a single pithy statement of general wisdom.
Exemplum Citing an example using an illustrative story, true or fictitious.
Pleonasm Using more words than required to express idea, being redundant. Usually a vice but done on purpose for emphasis.
Assonance Siimilar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words containing different consonants.
Dirimens Copulatio Mentioning a balancing or opposing fact to prevent argument from being one sided or unqualified.
Symploce Combining anaphora and epistrophe, one word or phrase is repeated at beginning and another is repeated at end.
Appositive Noune or substitute placed next to another to be described and defined by it.
Created by: davisckfan



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