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Biology chapter 3


What is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element? atom
What is associated with the atomic nucleus because of positive and negative charges but is still relatively far from the nucleus? Electrons in the electron cloud
Water? Hydro
Loving? philos
Fearing? phobos
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution Acid
The attraction between different kinds of molecules due to hydrogen bonds Adhesion
A solution in which water is the solvent Aqueous solution
A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution Base
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds Cohesion
The property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state Evaporative cooling
The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter heat
The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for one gram to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state. Amount of energy needed to turn a liquid into a gas and is relatively high in water due to hydrogen bonds Heat of vaporization
A single proton with a charge of plus one (+1). The dissociation of a water molecule leads to the generation of a hydroxide (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+) Hydrogen ion
Having an affinity for water Hydrophilic
Having an aversion to water Hydrophobic
A water molecule that has lost a proton Hydroxide ion
The energy of motion Kinetic energy
The sum of masses of all the atoms in a molecule, sometimes called molecular weight Molecular mass
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; ranges in value from 0 to 14 pH
A substance that is dissolved in a solution Solute
A liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances Solution
The dissolving agent of the solution Solvent
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost of 1 g of a substance to change its temperature by 1°C. how much energy it takes to change the temperature of the liquid and it's relatively high in water because of hydrogen bonds Specific heat
A measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of the liquid and is made higher in water due to hydrogen bonds Surface tension
A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees Temperature
What is made of one atom of oxygen bonded to two hydrogen atoms by polar covalent bonds? This also allows for what to form between water molecules? Water, hydrogen bonds
What gives water many unique properties compared to other liquids? Hydrogen bonding
Ice, or frozen water, is (blank) dense than liquid water because the (blank blank) in ice are fixed into place and space the water molecules further apart Less dense, hydrogen bonds
A homogenous mixture of two or more substances Solution
Things dissolved in a solvent Solutes
If the solvent is water, it is what? An aqueous solution
(Blank) substances are repelled By water and contai nonpolar bonds Hydrophobic
(Blank) substances are attracted By water and contain polar bonds or are ionic compounds Hydrophilic
When water breaks apart they can break into (blank) and (blank)? Hydrogen cations (H+) and hydroxide and ions (OH-)
The measure of how many H+ are in substances ph
H+ are (blank) in acids and (blank) in bases High, low
A pH of seven is? Neutral
you can figure out the pH, using the formula: pH = -log[H+]
formula for pH [H+] x [OH-] = 1 x 10-14
The attraction of like molecules to each other Cohesion
The cohesive force is maintained by the transient (blank blank) between adjacent molecules that contain internal polar covalent bonds Hydrogen bonds
The attraction of one type of molecule to another type Adhesion
In the transport vessels of a plant, ((blank) helps water molecules travel from the roots to the leaves by a chain of water molecules, each hydrogen bonded to water molecules enables the water to be pulled upwards against the pool of gravity Cohesion
(Blank) forces between the water molecules and other type of molecules in the vessel walls contain polar covalent bonds and therefore can hydrogen bond with the water molecules Adhesive
Water has a (blank) specific heat compared to other liquids so that its temperature changes less dramatically with adding or taking away heat High
Waters resistance to changing temperature is because (blank blank) between water molecules must be broken first by the added heat before any of that he can be used for a change in temperature Hydrogen bonds
Coastal areas generally have (blank) climates then inland areas due to the stabilizing effect of water on the air temperatures Milder
Measure of how hard it is to break the surface of the fluid Surface tension
Water tends to have a (Blank) amount of surface tension compared to other liquids Higher
The (blank blank) between water molecules gives a stability to the surface Hydrogen bonds
When the temperature of water is lowered the hydrogen bonds between water molecules become what? Fixed into place, spacing the water molecules further apart. This makes ice less dense than liquid
Water has a relatively (blank) heat of vaporization due to the need of molecules of water to overcome the attraction of the hydrogen bonds between each other High
a solution is a homogenous mixture of what? Solute and solvent
Hydrophobic substances contain what type of bonds that allow them to be repelled by water? Nonpolar covalent bonds
Hydrophilic substances are attracted to water and contain what type of bonds? Either polar covalent or ionic bonds
Hydrogen bonds have to be between what types of molecules? Polar
The attraction of water to neighboring water is an example of what? Cohesion
Water-based blood is attracted to glass capillaries which is caused by the adhesion of polar water to polar glass. This is called what? Capillary action
What is it called when hydrogen bonds between water molecules break? Evaporation
Water is a versatile solvent due to its what? Polarity
Water can form what type of solution? Aqueous
Regions of polar water molecules can interact with (blank) compounds called (blank) and dissolve them Ionic, solutes
Dissociation of water means that water can dissociate into (blank) and (blank)? Hydrogen and hydroxide
Created by: SarahRupp22
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