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Delta Module 1

Key Words and Terms from the Delta Module 1

First Language Acquisition (FLA) How people acquire their first language - how does this affect SLA? Happens quickly (5000 words by 5yo) Systematically staged (pre-linguistic/one word/ two-three words/grammar) Occurs via contact and interaction.
Second Language Acquisition (SLA) How additional languages are acquired. How are processes of SLA the same as FLA. Why do some learn faster/better than others? Might be affected by age, aptitude, motivation, learning style.
Methodology System for teaching a language. Based on a particular theory of language or learning (usually both). General approach to classroom practices, eg class management.
Universal Grammar Theory that all languages share certain fundamental principles. Noam Chomsky. Genetically programmed with an innate language learning faculty. Accounts for fact that FLA is 100% successful despite vast differences in exposure that children have.
Language Acquisition Non-conscious and natural process of internalizing the rules of a language. Picking up a language.
Input Spoken/Written language learners are exposed to. Modified for learners (foreigner speech)
Eclecticism Combining techniques and activities from different methods. Eg - using drills with CLT or Deductive and Inductive approaches to teaching grammar.
Learning Tasks Classroom activity whose focus is on communicating meaning. Objective may be solve a problem, make a plan, design, persuade someone. Learners use their own language resources.
CLT Makes communicative competence the goal of language teaching and by acknowledging the interdependence of language and communication.
Personalization Using language to talk about your own knowledge, experience and feelings. These personal associations with a language item can make them more memorable. Increases learners interest in the lessons.
Feedback on Content Consolidates the previous Learning Task with the aim of promoting exchange of information within the group. Teacher-led with responses elicited from the group.
Feedback on Errors/Language Analysis Errors that have arisen in the previous Learning Task are corrected - anonymous. Focus on MFP (Meaning, Form, Pronunciation).
Interactive/Communicative Practice Learners communicate with each other, the teacher, speakers of target language. Learner to learner communication is key feature of communicative approach.
Information Gap Activities Communicative activity in which the information necessary to complete the task is in possession of just participant or distributed among them. To achieve the goal of the task the learners have to share the information they have
Student-centred Dictation Students read passages of text aloud. Allows focus on pronunciation and increases exposure to non-native accents.
Running Dictation Text is posted on a far wall/outside the classroom. Students work in pairs to reconstruct it. One of the pair runs to the text, remembers as much as possible and relates it back to the other who writes it down.
Dictogloss Students hear complete text then reconstruct from memory, write down only key words, first and last letters. Their efforts are then compared to the original.
Scaffolding Temporary Interactional support given to help learners while they are learning a language. Enables learners to perform a task at a level beyond their competence.
Discourse Any connected piece of speaking or writing. Language at a sentence-level not word-by-word.
Negotiation of Meaning An interactive task in which learners jointly resolve a communication problem. May involve rephrasing questions/answers to help aid meaning.
Accuracy The extent to which a learner's use of second language conforms to the rules of the language. Measured in terms of Grammar, Vocab, Pronunciation.
Fluency Ability to speak a language idiomatically, accurately, without undue pausing, without an intrusive accent and in a manner appropriate to the context. Produce and maintain speech in Real Time.
Trial and Error a fundamental method of solving problems. It is characterized by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success or until the agent stops trying.
Register The way language varies according to variations in the context. Key factors - Field of discourse (what is being talked about, Tenor (rel. between the participants), Mode (eg, written or spoken).
Jigsaw Reading Each member of the group has different information, eg, a bus timetable, a map, list of hotels. Using all this information they plan a weekend break together.
Phonology The study of a sound system of a particular language and how this system is used by its speakers to express meaning.
Pronunciation Teaching General term for the part of language classes that deal with phonology - the individual sounds (phonemes), sounds in connected speech, word and sentence stress, rhythm and intonation.
Vowel A speech sound of English, produced without any significant obstruction or constriction of the airflow from the lungs to the lips and beyond. Sound is shaped by the position of the tongue and the shape of the lips.
Consonant Speech sound made when the airflow is obstructed by the articulators. Classified in terms of place (where the obstruction occurs), manner (type of ob.), whether or not the sound is voiced.
Articulator Parts of the mouth, throat, nose that are used to produce (articulate) speech. Flow of air from the lungs passes through the larynx, into the vocal tract - the shape is modified to produce the 44 phonemes of Standard English.
Intonation Meaningful use that speakers make of changes in their voice pitch - either rising or falling tone.
Stress Effect of emphasizing certain syllables by increasing loudness, length, pitch.
Rhythm The way that some words are emphasized so as to give the effect of regular beats / The regular repetition of stress in time.
Voiced sound A sound produced while the vocal cords are vibrating - can be felt by placing the palm of the hand on the throat area and uttering the sound in isolation.
Connected speech The way that speech sounds are produced as part of a continuous sequence. Assimilation, Elision, Liaison, Juncture.
Created by: jackyrbody



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