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ch 17 special senses

name the 4 senses smell, taste, hearing sight
what type of receptor is the olfactory receptor chemoreceptors
describe the olfactory organs -contain olfactory reeptors and supporting epithelial cells -cover parts of nasal cavity, superior nasal conchae, and a portion of the nasal septum
olfactory nerve pathway Once olfactory receptors are stimulated, nerve impulses travel through Olfactory nerves > olfactory bulbs > olfactory tracts > limbic system (for emotions) and olfactory cortex (for interpretation) Lack of Smell = Anosmia
name of bone at the top of the nose cribiform plate
Where is the olfactory bulb located in the forebrain
the strongest smell is based on the number of molecules in the air
taste buds organ of taste, located on papilae of tongue, roof of mouth, linings of cheeks and walls of pharynx
what kind of receptors is a taste recpetors chemoreceptors
what are taste cells and taste hairs modified epithelial cells that function as receptors microvilli that protrude from taste cells; sensitive parts of taste cells
what is the correct name for tastebud papillae
what is the correct name for the sense of taste gustation
five taste sensations sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
what cranial nerves are associated with taste vii facial, & ix glassopharyngial
taste nerve pathway sensory impulses from taste receptors travel along: -cranial nerve to -medulla oblongata to -thalamus to -gustatory cortex (for interpretation)
what are the four types of tastebuds (papillae) fungiform papillae, filiform papillae, foliate papillae, circumvallate papillae
what papillae is responsible for sensing texture filliform papillae
why is there no taste receptors in the epiglotis its in the autonomic system
what are the 3 sections of the ear external ear, middle ear, & inner ear
what parts are included in the external ear auricle, external auditory meadus, & tympanic membrane
what is the function of the auricle to collect sound waves
what is the function of the external auditory meatus lined with ceruminous glands, & carries sound to tympanic membrane
what is the function of the tympanic membrane vibrates in response to sound waves
what are the components of the middle ear tympanic cavity, auditory ossicles, & oval window
explain tympanic cavity air-filled space in temporal bone
what are the auditory ossicles and their function vibrate in response to tympanic membrane, inc malleus, incus and stapes also known as hammer anvil and stirrup
what is the oval window and its function opening in the wall of the tympanic cavity, stapes/stirrup vibrates against it to move fluids in the inner ear.
what is the auditory tube also known as Eustachian tube
what is the function of the auditory tube connects middle ear to throat, helps maintain equal pressure on both sides of tympanic membrane, usually closed by valve like flaps in the throat
what are the 2 complex systems of labyrinths in the inner ear osseous labryrinth and membranous labyrinth
explain the osseous labyrinth bony canal in temporal bone
explain the membranous labyrinth tube within osseous labyrinth, filled with endolymph
what are the 3 parts of the labyrinths cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibule
what is the function of the cochea hearing
what is the function of the semicircular canals and vestibule equilibrium
what are the two fluid filled cavities in the cochlea scala vestibuli & scala tympani
explain scala vestibuli upper compartment, leads from oval window to apex of spiral, part of bony labyrinth
explain scala tympani lower compartment, extends from apex of the cochlea to round window, part of the bony labyrinth.
explain cochlear duct portion of membranous labyrinth in cochlea
explain vestibular memerane seperates cochlear duct from scala vestibuli
explain basilar membrane separates cochlear duct from scala tympani
what is the organ of corti -group of hearing receptor cells (hair cells) -on upper surface of basilar membrane -different frequencies move diff parts of basilar membrane -particular sound frequencies cause hairs of receptor cells to bend -nerve impulse generated
2 types of equilibrium static equilibrium and dynamic equilibriem
explain static equalibrium -vestibule -senses position of head when body is NOT moving
explain dynamic equalibrium semicircular canals -senses rotation and movement of head and body
what are the visual accessory organs eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic eye muscles
Eyelids correct name palpebra
what are the 4 components of the eyelid skin, muscles, connective tissue and conjuctiva
orbicularis oculi what part of the eyelid closes the eyelid
levator parpebrae opens the eyelid
tarsal glands secrete oil onto eyelashes
conjuctiva mucous membrane, lines eyelid and covers portion of eyeball
four parts of the lacrimal apparatus lacrimal gland, canaliculi,lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct
lacrimal gland lateral to eye, secretes tears
canaliiesculi collects tears
lacrimal sac collects from canaliculi
nasolacrimal duct collects from lacrimal salc, empties tears into nasla cavity
extrinsic eye muscles superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior oblique, inferior obilque
superior rectus rotates eye up and medial
inferior rectus rotates eye down and medially
medial rectus rotates eye medially
lateral rectus rotates eye laterally
superior oblique rotates eye down and laterally
inferior oblique rotates eye up and laterally
eye wall has 3 layers outer fibrous tunic, middle vascular tunic, inner nervous tunic
Outer tunic consists of cornea and sclera (the white of your eye)
Cornea anterior portion -transparent -light transmission -light refraction
sclera (whites) posterior portion -opaque -protection
jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) excess build up of albumen
3components of the middle tunic Iris, ciliary body, and choroid coat
Iris -anterior portion -pigmented -controls light intensity
ciliary body -anterior portion -pigmented -holds lens -moves lens for focusing
choroid coat -provides blood supply -pigments absorb extra light
anterior portion of the eye filled with aqueous humor (fluid)
lens -transparent -biconvex -lies behind iris -largely composed of lens fibers -elastic -held in place by suspensory ligaments of ciliary body
ciliary body -forms internal ring around the front of the eye -ciliary processes- radiating folds -ciiary muscles- contract and relax to move lens
accomodation changing of lens shape to view objects
iris -composed of connective tissue and smooth muscle -pupil is hole in the iris -dim light stimulates radial muscles and pupil dilates -bright light stimulates circular muscles and pupil constricts
aqueous humor -fluid in the anterior cavity of eye -secreted by epithelium on inner surface of the ciliary body -provides nutrients -maintains shape of anterior portion of eye -leaves cavity through canal of schlemm
inner tunic -retina -contains visual receptors -continuous with optic nerve -vitreous humor, thick gel that holds retina flat against choroid coat
fovea centralus proper name for blind spot
posterior cavity contains viteous humor- thick gel that holds the retina flat again choroid coat
Created by: slarrett



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