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Ch 17 general senses

name the two sense categories General Senses and Special Senses
Describe and locate where general senses are Widely distributed throughout the body, in the skin, various organs, and joints
Describe special senses specialized receptors confined to the head. Eyes, ears, nose and mouth
What are Sensory receptor Specialized cells or multicellular structure that collect information from the environment.
What do sensory receptors do Stimulate neurons to send impulses along sensory fibers to the brain.
What is sensation a feeling that occurs when the brain becomes aware of sensory impulses
What is perception A person's view of the stimulus; the way the brain interprets the information
Receptor Types Chemoreceptors, nocioceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors
chemoreceptors respond to changes in chemical concentrations
nocioceptors respond to tissue damage
thermoreceptors respond to changes in temperature
mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical forces
photoreceptors respond to light
5 steps to Sensory impulse describe first 3 -stimulation of receptor causes local change in its receptor potential -a graded electrical current is generated that reflects intensity of stimulation -if receptor is part of a neuron, the membrane potential may generate an action potential
5 steps to Sensory impulse describe last 2 -if receptor is not part of a neuron, the receptor potential must be transferred to a neuron to trigger an action potential -perifperal nerves transmit impulses to CNS where they are analyzed and interpreted by the brain
What is Sensory adaptation -ability to ignore unimportant stimuli -sensory impulses become less frequent and may cease -stronger stimulus is required to trigger impulses.
name the 3 groups of general senses exteroceptive, visceroceptive, proprioceptive
what sense is associated with body surface such as touch, pressure, temperature, and pain exteroceptive
what sense is associated with changes in the viscera such as blood pressure stretching blood vessels and ingestion of a meal visceroceptive
what senses are associated with changes in muscles and tendons such as at joints proprioceptive
3 types of touch and pressure senses free nerve endings, meissner's, & pacinian
free nerve endings -common in epithelial tissues -simplest receptors -sense of itching
Meissner's -abundant in hairless portions of skin and lips -detect fine touch; distinguish between two points on the skin
Pacinian -Common in deeper subcutaneous tissues, tendons and ligaments -detect heavy pressure and vibrations
temperature senses are only receptive between what temperatures 10-45 degrees
warm recpetor ranges sensitive to temperatures above 25 but below 45
cold recepter ranges sensitive to temperatures between 10-25 degrees
Sense of pain -free nerve endings -widely distributed -nervous tissue of brain lacks pain receptors -adapt very little, if at all -stimulated by tissue damage, chemical mechanical forces, or extreme temperatures.
5 facts of visceral pain -pain receptors are the only receptors in viscera whose stimulation produces sensations -pain receptors respond differently to stimulation -pain receptors are not well localized -pain receptors may feel as if coming from some other part of the body
2 types of pain nerve pathways acute pain fibers and chronic pain fibers
acute pain fibers -A-delta fibers -thin, myelinated -conduct impulses rapidly -associated with sharp pain -well localized
chronic pain fibers -C fibers -thin, unmyelinated -conduct impulses more slowly associated with dull, aching pain -difficult to pinpoint
regulation of pain impulses -thalamus -cerebral cortex -pain inhibiting substances
thalamus- regarding pain allows person to be aware of pain
Cerebral cortex -regarding pain -judges intensity of pain -locates source of pain -produces emotional and motor responses to pain
pain inhibiting substances -enkephalins -serotonin -endorphins
what is proprioception and what kind of receptor does it use information send to spianl cord and CNS about body position and length, and tension of muschles. (3D space) -mechanoceptors
Main kinds of proprioceptors pacinian, muscle spindles, and golgi tendon organs
stretch receptors muscle spindles, and golgi tendon organs
another name for visceral senses interoreceptors
what are interorecpetors -receptors in internal organs -convey info that incl the sense of fullness after eating a meal as well as the discomfort of intestinal gas and the pain that signals a heart attack
Created by: slarrett



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