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coordination

occurancce of incoordination

QuestionAnswer
Ataxia Impaired gross coordination and gait
Adiadochokinesia inability to perform rapid alternating movements...ex forearm supination and pronation
Dysmetria inability to judge the distance between two points
Dyssynergia movements appear jerky (mm have trouble working together.)
Tremor involuntary trembling or shaking intention tremor: occurs during movement resting tremor: Occurs during absence of movement...Pill-rolling tremor: appears to be rolling a pill between thumb and index finger(Parkinson's)
Rebound Phenomenon of Holmes The inability to stop a movement already in motion to avoid striking something.
Nystagmus An involuntary movement of the eyeballs that is a normal response to the body trying to regain balance and orientation...(eyeballs move back n forth, up n down or rotating).
Dysarthria incoordination of the speech mechanism...speech is explosive or slurred.
Choreiform movements Uncontrolled, jerky, purposeless movements...often seen during sleep.
Athetoid movements...Athetosis movements that mainly occur in the distal extremities... slow and wormlike, without stability.
Spasms sudden involuntary contractions of a mm or group of mm. Spinal cord injury, spasms often cause violent and involuntary straightening of the legs.
Dystonia Faulty mm tension or tone....Involves lg portions of the body, w distorted posturing and bizarre writhing movmts.
Ballism Projectile movmts of one side of the body...very rare symptom
8 Components of normal postural reflex mechanism Postural tone...mm tone...integration of primitive reflexes...mass patterns of mvmt...righting reactions...equilibrium reactions...protective extension reactions...voluntary/intentional mvmt.
Normal mm tone A continuous state of mm contraction and readiness
Preferred position for assessing mm tone is: upright, either sitting or standing, since these are positions for occupational performance tasks.
3 Types of abnormal mm tone HYPOtonicity (flaccidity)...HYPERtonicity (spasticity)...RIGIDITY
HYPOTONICITY Result of; peripheral nerve damage...cerebellar disease...or frontal lobe damage (seen temporarily in the 1st shock phase of a stroke or spinal cord injury).
RIDIGITY Both mm groups(agonist &antagonist) contract continually Lead-pipe rigidity; constant resistance through ROM Cogwheel rigidity; a rhythmic "give" during the resistance of ROM.
Suck/swallow reflex Onset:28 wks...I:2-5 mo. Non-integration interferes with eating, due to involuntary protrusion/retraction of the tongue
Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) Onset: 37 wks...I: 4-6 mo. Interferes with maintaining head & U.E in midline Interferes w grasping objects in line of vision and bringing objects to the mouth
Symmetrical tonic neck reflex Onset: 4-6 mo...I: 8-12mo. Interferes w; crawling...supine to sitting...sitting to standing
Tonic labyrinthine reflex (TLR)..supine or prone Onset: +37wks...I: 6 mo. Severely limited mvmt..interferes w; supine to sitting...rolling supine to prone or vise versa. difficulty sitting in a w/c for any length of time....can result in increased flexor tone.
Positive supporting reflex (PSR) Stimulus: pressure to the ball of the foot Response: leg ext. and plantar flexion of ankle. Difficulty rising from a chair and descending steps, since leg remains in ext.
Crossed Extension reflex Stimulus; flexion of one leg Response; ext of the other leg Difficulty w bridging and reciprocal walking
Palmar grasp reflex Onset: 37 wks...I: 4-6 mo. lack of integration causes inability to release objects from the hand
Plantar grasp reflex Onset: 28wks...I: 9 mo. Difficulty keeping toes from curling in shoes. Normal equilibrium responses in the foot do not develop
Brunnstrom's 9 Stages of motor recovery for a CVA 1. no motion...2.reflex response...3.associat-ed reactions 4.mass synergistic response...5. deviation from pattern...6. Wrist stability 7. individual finger mvmt...8. selected pattern w overlay...9.Selective mvmt
HYPERTONICITY Deep tendon reflexes and clonus(quick, repetitive, alternate contractions of antagonist and agonist mm) Occurs in patterns of flexion or extension Upper motor neuron disorders...ex. MS, CVAs, head injury, brain tumors and spinal cord injury or disease
Created by: debbiej