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MB2080 Blood

QuestionAnswer
What are the 10 cell stages of Erythropoeisis? 1. Stem cell 2. Myeloid Progenitor Cell 3. Burst forming unit E 4. Colony forming unit E 5. Proerythroblast 6. Basophilic erythroblast 7. Polychromatic erythroblast 8. Normoblast 9. Reticulocyte 10. Erythrocyte
What is EPO? Erythropoietin; A cytokine that stimulates erythropoeisis, with particular effect on the Colony forming unit E stage. Synthesised in the Kidney (90%) and Liver (10%), and also in macrophages(?)
What EPO substitutes exist? CERA: Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Agonist...or "Cheater's EPO Receptor Agonist", if you're a Tour de France cyclist...
What converts ferric iron (Fe3+) to ferrous iron at the duodenal brush border? ferric reductase; Duodenal cytochrome B
What oxidation state must iron be in to be absorbed into the duodenal enterocytes? +2
What transports Haem iron across the apical membrane of duodenal enterocytes? Haem Carrier Protein 1
What does haem oxygenase do? Liberates iron from the haem complex by converting Fe2+ into Fe3+ and releasing the Fe3+. (Intracellular)
What is the ferritin store? Store of coagulated iron (Fe2+)
How does Fe2+ get out of the enterocyte and into the plasma? Via the basolateral transporter Ferroportin
What does Hephaestin do? Associated with ferroportin; it's an enzyme that converts exiting Fe2+ to Fe3+ in the interstitial fluid, to allow the Fe3+ to bind to transferrin.
How do you get Fe2+ (from a dietary vegetable source)into the duodenal enterocyte? Via the co-transporter Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1)
What role does Transferrin play in iron balance? Binds to an allows transport of Fe3+ in the plasma
How is iron absorption relevant to blood? The blood disorder microcytic anaemia can be caused by iron deficiency, as iron is required for efficient erythropoiesis and haemoglobin production.
What is microcytic anaemia? Anaemia featuring under-sized red blood cells (low mean corpuscular volume)
What are 3 types of microcytic anaemia? 1. Iron Deficiency 2. Thalassaemia 3. Sickle Cell anaemia
What is normocytic anaemia? Anaemia due to reduced hematocrit, although red blood cells are of normal size and mean corpuscular volume.
What causes normocytic anaemia? Acute Blood Loss, Renal failure, marrow fibrosis...
What is macrocytic anaemia Low hematocrit anaemia, featuring over-sized res blood cells
Causes of macrocytic anaemia? Megablastic bone marrow: Vitamin B12 defiency or folate deficiency. Normoblastic marrow: alcohol poisoning, liver disease...
EPO replacement; clinical uses for treating what? Suppressed erythropoiesis; due to Renal Failure, or due to chemotherapy/ AIDS treatment with e.g. Zidovudine
Side effects of EPO abuse? Transient "Flu-like" symptoms; headache. Viscous blood. Hypertension. Thrombosis. Myocardial infarction...death...getting kicked out of professional cycling...
Typical symptoms of anaemia? Headache, dizziness, fatigue, faintness, palpitations, tachycardia, angina...
% Components of blood? Plasma (54%) Cellular elements: Erythrocytes (45%), Buffy coat (1%) = Leukocytes and platelets
Plasma content? Water, electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+...), plasma proteins...
Name 3 types of Plasma proteins? Albumins, Globulins, fibrinogen...
What are Albumins; where are they synthesised and what do they do? Transport proteins; binds to stuff that requires transport in blood e.g. thryroid hormones, bilirubin, fatty acids and drugs like penicillin (prevents premature breakdown). Synthesised in the liver. Aslo an important oncotic pressure.
What are Globulins; where are they synthesised and what do they do?
Created by: Kingfisher