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Chapter twenty-one**

Physiology

QuestionAnswer
The enzyme that converts carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid is ___. carbonic anhydrase
___ are chemicals that prevent sharp changes in pH when an acid or base is added to a solution. Buffers
If a strong acid such as HCl were added to the buffer pair NaHCO3 and H2CO3, the NaHCO3 would become ___. H2CO3
If a strong base such as NaOH were added to the buffer pair in question 3, the H2CO3 would become ___. NaHCO3
The part of the nephron that is important in regulation of blood pH is the ___. distal tubule
When Na2HPO4 is used by the kidney to remove hydrogen ions from the blood, the end product that leaves the body in the urine is ___. NaH2PO4
When ammonia is used by the kidney to remove hydrogen ions from the blood, the end product that leaves the body in the urine is ___. NH4Cl
The kidney is more effective in pH regulation than the lung because it can remove ___, which the lung cannot. base
The condition in which the blood pH is higher than normal is called ___. alkalosis
The condition in which the blood pH is lower than normal is called ___. acidosis
In order for the buffer pair to function correctly, the concentration of NaHCO3 must be ___ times greater than the concentration of H2CO3. 20
Metabolic disturbances usually have an effect on the ___ part of the buffer pair. NaHCO3
Respiratory disturbances usually have an effect on the ___ part of the buffer pair. H2CO3
Severe vomiting is a metabolic disturbance that can cause metabolic ___. alkalosis
Increase or decrease When a fixed acid is buffered in the blood, the amount of NaHCO3 in the blood ___. decreases
Increase or decrease When a fixed acid is buffered in the blood, the amount of hydrogen ions in the blood ___. increases
Increase or decrease When a fixed acid is buffered in the blood, the amount of H2CO3 in the blood ___. increases
Increase or decrease When a fixed acid is buffered in the blood, the pH of the blood ___. decreases
Increase or decrease Anything that causes an excessive increase in the respiration rate causes the pH of the blood to ___. increase
Increase or decrease Anything that causes an appreciable decrease in the respiration rate causes the pH of the blood to ___. decrease
Created by: hakej