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CLLS-300

hemo final

QuestionAnswer
HCT 42-52M/37-47W
Hgb 13-18g/dL M/ 11-16 g/dL W
MCV pts hct(L/L)/erythrocyte ct(X10^12/L)= FL 80-96fl
MCHC hgb(gm/dL)/HCT(L/L) = g/dL 32-36%
ESR Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate 0-15mm/hr 0-20mm/hr
retic count to determine production rate of erythrocytes
corrected retic male 45L/L female 42 L/L
fibrinogen 200-400 mg/dL
PT 12-15.5 sec
Thrombin 15-20 sec
aptt 32-48 sec
platelets 150-400 X 10^9/L
MPV 7.4-10.4fL
Bleeding time vascularity and platelet function in response to injury
Clot retraction see if clot retracts fully within a 24hr period
PT extrinsic & common pathways
PT measures coagulation factors (I,II,VII,X & V)
aptt identify deficiencies in the intrinsic & commom pathways (I,V, IX, X, VIII, XI)
Erythropoiesis production of RBC
mature erythrocytes biconcave, 1/3 central pallor, 120 day life span
heme pigment portion, synthesized as RBC matures, responsible foe transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
vital substances to erythrocyte & hemoglobin production amino acids, iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, erythropoeitin
erythropoietin produced by kidney, secreted by liver, stimulated by low tissue O2 levels
reference range RBC 4.6-6.2X10^12/L -M 4.2-5.4X10^12/L -F
MCH hgb (X10g/dL)/erythrocyte ct(X10^12/L)=pg
anisocytosis abnormal rbc variation in size/any severe anemia
spherocyte compact rbc, round, lost its central palor/hereditary spherocytosis, Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia
stomatocyte central slit-like opening resembling a mouth/ congenital hemolytic anemia, thalassemia, burns, lupus
ovalocyte oval or egg-like appearance/pernicious anemia
poikilocytosis abnotmal variation in shape/any severe anemia
elliptocyte/pencil cell narrow, elongated, resembling a rod or cigar/various anemia, HbC disease, Thalessemia, Hemolytic anemia
codocyte/target cell rbc with a dark center and periphery and clear ring in between "bull's eye"/ Thalessemia, liver disease, hemoglobinopathies
basophillic stippling multiple uniform dark dots distributed evenly throughout the cell/altered RNA
Heinz bodies small, round inclusions. denatured, precipitated hemoglobin
Howell-Jolly Body DNA: nuclear or chromosomal reminants
Pappenheimer Body clusters of small blue coccoid bodies in periphery of cell, non-heme iron
neutrophil immune defenses, engulf bacteria & cellular debris 40-77%
eosinophil defense against parasites, allergic response 1-4%
basophil inflammatory response, release histamine 0.5-1%
monocyte immune surveillance, engulf cellular debris 2-6%
B-lymphocyte antibody production
T-lymphocyte cellular immune response
leukocyte differential determine the % of each type of leukocyte present & to assess RBC & platelet morph. Can detect disorders or leukemias
increase in band cells shift to left/infection
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) differs Acute Monocytic (+)& Myelogenous from ALL
Sudan Black B (SBB) differs AML(+)from ALL\
Periodic Acid Schiff myeloblastic & monoblastic from lymphoblastic (+)
TdT ALL (+) from AML
responsible for regulating all of the clotting Thrombin
Stuart factor X/both pathways
Hageman factor XII/Intrinsic
IX Christmas factor/intrinsic
prekallikrein fletcher factor/intrinsic
human cell membrane is composed of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids
Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis are examples Endocytosis
deletion an alteration in the nuclear DNA resulting from the loss of a section of chromatin
Hematopoiesis stops in the liver when 1-2 wks after birth
blood cells that normally display vaculozation of the cytoplasm monocytes
stimulate formation of megakaryoblasts to megakaryocytes Thrombopoietin
stimulates WBC formation Leukopoietin
Interleukins Cytokine involved in development of T & B lymphocytes
Interleukin -3 works with erythropoietin to stimulate CFU-E formation from BFU-E
apoptosis cell death associated with normal physiology
meiosis process of cell division which results in ova & sperm with 1/2 norm number of chromosomes are produced
mesoblastic phase mesenchyme
hepatic phase liver
medullary phase liver & bone marrow
reactive lymphocyte variant lymphocyte
which type of hemoglobin is not considered a variant form Glycosylated hemoglobin
what substance, when combined with iron forms a heme molecule protoporphyrin
cells with longstanding chronic anemias appear hypochromic, microcytic
What's the most common glycolytic enzyme deficiency associated with Pentose Phosphate pathway (aerobic) G6PD deficiency
what is the amino acid substitution found in sickle cell anemia substitution of valine for glutamic acid in the 6th position of beta chain
March anemia is an acquired for of which anemia Hemolytic
Thalassemia is best described as abnormal rate of globin chain synthesis
What manifestation of Alpha thalassemia is caused by 4 inactive genes that result in fetal death Hydrops fetalis with Hb Bart's
Manifestation of Alpha thalassemia is caused by 1 inactive alpha gene silent carrier state
lymphocytes 10-40%
cells that produce antibodies and lymphokines lymphocytes
Average life span of a neutrophil in the peripheral blood 7-10hours
NK cells antibody dependant and independent cytoxicity
Memory cells antigen sensitization, quick response on re-exposure
plasmacytes production of immunoglobulins (antibodies)
neutrophil description segmented nucleus, granulocyte, blue/pink granules
monophil description mononucleus, lacy blue-gray cytoplasm, vacuoles
lymphocytes mononucleus, dense chromatin, sky blue, scant cytoplasm
eosinophil segmented nucleus, granulocyte, red/orange granules
basophil segmented nucleus, granulocyte, azo granules
infectious mononucleosis (cell manifestation) Atypical lymphocyte
Niemann-Pick's disease (cell manifestation) Pick cell
Pelger-Huet anomaly (cell manifestation) Hyposegmented, neutrophils (pince nez)
Pernicious anemia (cell manifestation) Hypersegmented neutrophils
Human ehrlichiosis (cell manifestation) Morulae
severe decrease in the total number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood lymphopenia
Ameboid movement of neutrophils from the peripheral blood into the tissue Diapedisis
Release of substances that attract phagocytic cells as the result of traumatic or microbial damage Chemotaxis
Target cell destruction through extracellullar nonphagocytic mechanism cytotoxic reaction
hemoglobinopathies inherited gene that affect amino acid residual sequence or production of hemoglobin
PT time 12-14 sec
APTT less than 35 sec
bleeding time 2-8 min
thrombin clotting time less than 20 sec
Hemophilia A Factor VIII deficiency
HIT detection of heparin antibodies
Hypercoagulable state detection of Factor V Leiden
Vitamin K deiciency prolonged PT
coumadin/warfarin levels PT
heparin APTT
normal INR range 2.0-3.0
what 3 components interact to produce hemostasis vasoconstriction, temp platelet plug, blood coagulation
Created by: pamela18