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F.O.N

addictive personality

facts
elements to addiction excessive use or abuse display of psychological disturbances decline of social & economic function uncontrollable consumption indicating dependence
personality traits low-stress tolerance dependency negative self-image feeling of insecurity depresion
psychoactive drugs make user feel good
social use creates relaxed atmosphere encourages people to share & be more open
3 diseases of dependency chronic incurable progressive
3 stages of a progressive disease early middle late
early stage includes increased drug tolerance strong denial defends drug use to family more socialized with users increased tardiness or call offs from work/school possible legal problems good prognosis for recovery even w/o treatment program
health experience in early stages insomnia anxiety cramps heart palpitations changes in sexual libido accidental injury
common drug users feels attitude mood swings low-self esteem shame or guilt remorse resentment irritability
middle stage includes uses are moderately impaired tries to decrease or stop(heavier user) abstinence brings s&s of withdrawal use to feel normal establish pattern of use weakens family/friend relationship physical heath decline job loss legal problems need treatment
middle stage behavior arguing lying stealing incest physical abuse child neglect social isolation multiple use progress to late stage faster
common problems in the middle stage wt changes GI problems suicide attempts blackouts sexual problems STD accidental injury overdose
Late stage includes severe impairment in all areas of function continual use to avoid emotional/physical pain(normalcy) poor problem solving/judgment neglects hygiene manipulative(denies problems) unemployed/homeless must receive treatment
medical problems in late stage malnutrition liver disease pancreatitis toxic psychosis kidney failure sexual impotence stroke
late stage IV users risk for HIV hepatitis B&C septicemia(infection n blood) abscess infection endocarditis(lining of heart)
alcoholism is a nation problem
things the contribute to alcoholism inner urge controlled by nervous systems dysfunction of the endocrine system uses for copying mechanism
ethology/pathophysiology CNS depressant affects higher center of the brain including the frontal cortex which gives self control judgment is blocked but memory/pleasure is obtained affect the limbic system(primitive part of the brain, regulates hunger, thirst & sexual desires
repeated alcohol use affects the basal ganglia of the brain unbalance compulsion controls leading to obsessive-compulsive behavior rapid lg quality consumption acute alcohol poisoning(death)
active ingredient in alcohol is ethyl
alcohol does not require digestion absorbed in stomach & intestine 90% metabolized n the liver
alcohol has diuretic effect
urine of heavy drinkers contain(body getting rid of ?) increase amounts potassium magnesium & zinc
alcohol prolong use has a effect in the mucosa(lining of the intestine decrease absorption of thiamine(vit B folic acid, vit B12)
alcohol does not convert to sugar(glycogen) provides 200kal no minerals or vitamins
alcohol blood level in most states .08% (depends on alcohol & size)
Fatal alcohol syndrome(FAS) maternal use of 3 oz daily(abnormal results common in new born
FAS birth defects mental retardation growth disorder wide-set eyes malformation of the body parts(calf lip or pallet) spontaneous abortion or stillbirth
alcohol withdrawal syndrome developed physiologic dependence & tries to guits
signs and symptoms od alcohol withdrawal syndrome mild tremors(6-48Hrs after last drink) flulike symptoms nausea & vomiting severe agitation hallucinations diaphoresis(sweat) tachycardia(fast heart rate) HTN(high B/P)
associated w/cessation( trying to stop) Alcohol withdrawal syndrome anorexia restlessness disorientation hallucination seizures(12-24hrs after cessation) usually Grand mal
Delirium Tremors(DT's) complication of alcohol withdrawal results from excessive withdrawal death 15% even after treatment
signs & symptoms of DT ( occur 1-2 days after cessation last 2days-week) tremors increase activity to point of agitation disorientation hallucinations fear with appearance of panic elevated temp
Korsakoff's psychosis(syndrome) brain disorder in chronic alcoholics
Korsakoff's psychosis(syndrome) signs & symptoms short term memory disorientation muttering delirium insomnia hallucinations polyneuritis painful extremities w/ foot drop affecting gait
Wernicke's encephalopathy occurs in association w/ thiamine deficiency causing brain damage in the temporal lobes
sign & symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy memory loss aphasia involuntary eye movement double vision lack of muscle coordination disorientation w/ confabulation (loss of thought)
health disorders associated w/ alcoholism gastrointestinal GI hepatic cardiovascular/blood disorder musculoskeletal neurologic
different types of drug abuse illegal drugs(club, street, rave) prescription over the counter meds
CNS depressants alcohol sedatives hypnotic meds opioids analgesics
sedative-hypnotic drugs barbiturates benzodiazepine minor tranquilizers
sign/symptoms of CNS disorder decreased respirations passiveness/listlessness heaviness in extremities pinpoint pupils(opioids) reduced hunger/thirst reduced sexual drive memory loss slurred speech nausea/vomiting ataxic gait(staggering) nod state
barbiturates ( used n 20th century) for sedative, hypnotic, anesthetic/anticonvulsant effect
problematic side effects of barbiturates respiratory depression rapid tolerance dependency sudden withdrawal-seizures/status, epilepticus
different kinds of barbiturates flurazepam(Dalmane) chlordiazepoxide (Libruim) diazepam (Valium) alprazolam(Xanax) flunitazepam (Rohynal)- club drug GHB (gamma hydroxybutrate)-club drug
diazepam (Valium) 6th most prescribed anti-anxiety
alprazolam (Xanax) treat acute anxiety
flunitrazepam (Rohynol) date rape(club drug) easily mix n drinks alcohol increase effects unknowingly consumes odorless/tasteless/colorless works quickly (unconsciousness) muscle relaxation/ amnesia not legal in US
GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate)club drug euphoric sedative body building(anabolic effects) odorless/tasteless/colorless synthetic drug(common for the fitness center
opioid analgesics facts made from poppies Hippocrates -poppy's magical pain relieving properties 16th popular med in Europe schedule 1 drug
different ways to consume an opioid analgesics snorting smoking injecting
morphine (synthetic derivatives-schedule 2 drug) orally or inject cough suppressant slows peristalsis un the gut mildly contract the bladder tolerance-develops rapidly abstinence reverses rapidly
3 general types of abusers for morphine street abuser(illegally) prescribed opioids(middle class adult health care profession's) methadone abuser(chronic pain)
Signs/symptoms acute opioid overdose respiratory depression pinpoint pupils stupor/coma
treatment for acute opioid overdose support of ventilator naloxone(Narcan) clonidine(Catapress)-helps reduce withdrawal symptoms monitor for recurrent toxic symptoms
morphine/heroine is consume in huge amounts
withdrawal signs/symptoms(6hrs after last dose)-peaks 2-3 days-subsides 5-10days flu like symptoms watery eyes dilated pupils gramps diaphoresis HTN body aches runny nose vomiting diarrhea tachycardia chills/fevers cold turkey-comes from gooseflesh common
methadone(dolophine)facts synthetic opioid that helps suppress withdrawal symptoms in morphine/heroine addicts once pt stabilizes decrease daily unit addict is methadone free methadone is sometimes a drug of abuse for former heroine addicts motivation key to success
methadone long acting compound(better out come) levo-alpha-acetylmethadol or LAAM(orlaa m)
stimulants caffeine amphetamines cocaine
caffeine facts present in food/ over the counter meds cold/sinus meds appetite suppressants chemically related to theophylline(COPD)
stimulants effects of caffeine (mid)- typically last 5-7hrs after consumption habitual 5-7 cups per day (can cause withdrawals)
signs/symptoms of caffeine withdrawals headache fatigue irritability
commonly consumed food of caffeine (contains moderate-lg amounts) coffee tea soft drinks
stimulants potentially aggravate anxiety disorder schizophrenia heart conditions
nicotine facts present in tobacco legally sanctioned as a substance abuser smokers declining woman/underage smokers are rising
effect of nicotine increase alertness/conceration appetite suppression vasoconstriction
heavy/ persistent smokers quickly develops tolerance/dependence
nicotine switch to oral from of tobacco snuff or chew to reduce hazards from smoking
when heavy nicotine users suddenly stop withdrawal symptoms are cravings irritability restlessness impatience hostility anxiety confusion difficulty concentrating disturbed sleep increase appetite decreased heart rate
nicotine treatment- 70& of people that quick relapse agents to decrease the dose nicotine nicotine gum transdermal patch nasal spray agents that block reinforcing effects of smoking behavior therapy
cocaine facts white powder used topical, local,& anesthetic vasoconstrictor for some types of surgery EENT
Crack Cocaine facts addiction rapidly inexpensive from of cocaine freebasing method of extracting cocaine cravings persist for months smoke, freebase, snort or possible IV (30se)
overdose of cocaine cardiorespiratory distress seizures hospitalize to stabilize heart abnormalities/protect from suicide amantadine(Symmetrel) serves in treatment for Parkinson's disease to reduce cravings
neonates of cocaine addicted mothers or crack babies need close watch for complications swaddling or wrapping the body, snuggling is often used to comfort keep stimuli such as bright lights, loud noise & excessive handling to a minimum
amphetamines facts popular in club drug methylphenidate (Ritalin) powder that u snort, smoke, inject mixed w/ heroin or marijuana methamphetmine-potent addictive amphetamine powerful release od neurotransmitter dopamine dopamine deletion n brain cause parkinsonian sym
effects of amphetamines brain call damage sometime permanent CNS stimulant is so strong hallucinations/paranoia wt loss/malnutrition from anorexia effect are sometime severe ,cause damage to blood vessel, lead to heart attack or stoke brain damage @ cellar level or sudden d
chronic abusers of amphetamines exhibit flat affect forgetfulness difficulty in concentration due to irreversible brain damage
Created by: yetivia