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S&HA&P PowerPoint 17

The larynx transforms _____ _______ into _______ _______. This process is called ________. lung airstream, audible sounds, phonation
How is a glottal tone produced? rapid closing and opening of the vibrating vocal folds periodically interrupting the air stream. It is later modified/shaped by articulatory actions of the rest of the vocal apparatus.
Bernoulli's law if the airflow is constant, the velocity of flow must increase at the region of the constriction, but with a corresponding decrease of pressure perpendicular to the construction. (If airflow is constant, pressure increases when speed does.)
When air flows through the glottis, the vocal folds are _________________________________ on two conditions: sucked together by negative pressure, 1)glottis is sufficiently narrow, 2)airflow is sufficiently high
vocal attack the process of adducting the vocal folds for phonation
simultaneous vocal attack adduction of vocal folds and onset of expiration occurs together (zoo)
breathy vocal attack airflow begins before phonation (hyper); air flows before the vocal folds are completely closed
glottal vocal attack adduction of the vocal folds happens before the air flow. commonly used when word begins with a stressed vowel (ok)
vocal termination the process of abducting the vocal folds to end the process of phonation
steps of phonation vocal attack, sustained phonation, vocal termination
pitch the subjective perception of frequency
fundamental frequency (F0) the natural frequency of oscillation for vocal folds depending on mass, length, and stiffness
The length of vocal folds can be ______ or ______ (by the ________ muscle/joints), which will respectively ______ and ______ the pitch elongated, shortened, crico-thyroid) raise, lower
the vocal folds will produce a higher pitch when _______ and _______. stretched and tensed
in males, the larynx becomes so prominent after puberty that... the voice drops about one octave
the longer and thicker the vocal folds are, the lower the ______. F0 (fundamental frequency)
puberphonia maintenance of the childhood pitch despite having passed through puberty
loudness the perception of pitch intensity measured in sound pressure
To yell, one needs to increase the ________ _______ and increase the ________ of the vocal fold. Therefore there is a correlation between ________ and _______. subglottal pressure, tension, loudness, pitch
vocal registers the larynx produces different vibratory patterns with particular pitches and characteristic sounds
normal voice modal voice
modes of phonation that are not voiced nil and whisper
nil phonation is when... no sound is generated
nil phonation can be realized by... blocking airflow from lungs with fully adducted vocal folds OR vocal folds widely abducted and airflow is laminar (no turbulence)
breath phonation higher airflow speeds cause turbulences (e.g., /h/)
Created by: 100000299709410



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