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Hardware I - Final

QuestionAnswer
IRQ 0? System Time
IRQ 1? Keyboard
IRQ 2? Cascade - not really used, connects to other IRQ chips
IRQ 3? Com 2+4, Serial port controller
IRQ 4? Com 1+3, Serial port controller
IRQ 5? LPT2 - Sound
IRQ 6? Floppy Controller
IRQ 7? LPT1 - printers and parallel port
IRQ 8? RTC - Real Time Clock
IRQ 9? Cascade same as 2
IRQ 10-11? Available
IRQ 12? Mouse on PS/2
IRQ 13? Math co-processor
IRQ 14? Primary ATA
IRQ 15? Secondary ATA
IRQ Priority? 0-2, 8-15, 3-7
What stores resources of last successful boot? Where? CMOS, ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data)
Differences between Warm and Cold boot? COLD= completely off to on, entire boot process WARM= properly reset running system, no POST required
What is shadowing? BIOS programs are loaded into main memory (RAM)
What is Flashing? Overwriting of existing firmware or data on ROM.
v90 / v92 modem differences? v90= supports up to 56Kbps, earlier v92= faster speed, shorter handshake (remembers previous settings), call-waiting
What is UART? Universal Asynchronous Reciever/Transmitter, converts parallel data in your computer to serial form. 16550A.
Most PC modems hardware of software? Software
Can you get 56k in reality on phone line? Why/Why not? No, voltage limitations, interference, poor quality (crosstalk), long cable lengths.
What are the proprietary modem slots? ACR, AMR or CNR...ACR looks like backwards PCI.
Modem speeds to v. standards? v.32=14.4k, v.34=28.8k-33.6k, v.90-92=56k
Difference between UART and modem? UART allows computer to talk to the modem
Name of the telephone jack connector? RJ-11
What is POTS? Plain Old Telephone Service
What is modulator/demodulate? Modulating= converting digital data to analog, Demodulating= analog to digital.
What is OCR? Optical Character Recognition, converts scanned images of text to word documents
What is interpolation? sharpen the scanned image (and advertise higher scanning resolution than it's hardware is capable of)
What is TWAIN? software that designed to be a universal translator between the imaging device and the scanner applications
What is CCD? Charged Coupled Devices, contains photosites that maps the scanned area and is charged with electrons based on reflected light.
What are the 3 types of scanners? Flatbed, Sheet-Fed, Hand-Held
What interfaces do scanners user? SCSI, USB, FireWire, Serial, Parallel
What is DPI? Dots Per Inch, measure printing dot density
What is Bit Depth? Colour Depths (24bit, 36bit)
How does scanning work? Light shone on document, reflected off concave mirrors to make image smaller and through a filter and a lens into the CCDs which maps the scanned area.
What is DB-25? Parallel port for scanners/printers
What is ESD? Electro Static Discharge
What does ESD cause? Complete failure and degradation
What are the 2 types of screws used? m3 fine thread(optical+floppy), 6-32 coarse thread(case, expansion slots, HD)
What screwdriver do we use? Philips #2
What is CAV? Constant Angular Velocity, constant spin velocity, DTR varies, lower near the center
What is CLV? Constant Linear Velocity, varies the rate of spin to have constant DTR
What is SMART? Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology, monitors hardware problems
What are the 3 areas of optical disk layout? Lead-In, Data, Lead-Out
How do you replace SRAM? Replace the CPU
What is MIDI? Musical Instrument Digital Interface, shitty music.
Main difference between PCI and PCIe Parallel vs. Serial
What are the various Form Factor? (7) At, Baby AT, ATX, Micro-ATX, Mini-ITX, NLX, BTX/Micro-BTX
What is the most common home motherboard? ATX
What is the motherboard used for mini tower? Micro-ATX
What is the motherboard used for home theater? Mini-ITX, passively cooled
What is the motherboard used to server? NLX, riser card slot
What motherboard has I/O ports on the wrong side? BTX
What are the different names used instead of motherboard? Planar, main board, system board
Physical Size of hard drives? 3.5inch and 2.5inch
What are some of the major rotation speeds of Hard Drives? 3.6k, 5.4k-7.2k, 10k, 15k
What is a sector? Smallest unit of space on HD that can be allocated (512 bytes, advanced can be 4KB)
What is a cluster? Group of sectors (2-64), smallest amount of space that can be used for any read/write
What is a track? Concentric circles on the platter
What is a cylinder? Group of tracks of the same diameter on different platters.
What are the common interfaces on a HD SATA, SCSI
How does the master/slave system work with SATA? SATA doesn't use master/slave
Pins on SATA / PATA? SATA = 15, PATA = 40
2 types of filters found in a HD? Barometric, Recirculating
What does the voice coil motor do? Moves the read head.
RAID 0? Data Striping, no fault tolerance
RAID 1? Disk Mirroring, all data saved 2x
RAID 2? does not exist
RAID 3? Data Striping With Dedicated Parity Drive
RAID 4? Data Striping With Dedicated Parity Drive, larger stripes
RAID 5? Data Striping with Rotating Parity, most common
RAID 6? Data Striping with Dual Rotating Parity, can recover from 2 failed drives
What is nested raid level? Combination of Raid 0+1, mirrored + striped, minimum 4 drives
RAID LVL = Minimum Drives | Max Data Storage 0=2|n, 1=2|n/2, 3+4+5=3|n-1, 6=4|n-2
PC Card Type I? 3.3mm, usually flash, not very common
PC Card Type II? 5.0mm, often NIC, most common
PC Card Type III? 10.5mm, mini HD, quite rare
What has replaced PC Cards? ExpressCard
What is a Hot Spare? An extra HD that is running and ready to start working if one goes down.
How many pins in DDR for laptops? DDR1+2= 200, DDR3= 204
What is Nickel Cadmium? "Battery memory", old, bad
What is Nickel Metal Hydride? not as bad memory, still older, not as bad
What is Lithium Ion? Newest, best, high voltage till steep drop near end of life.
What is Speedstep? When unplugged it uses less power in laptop
When can you upgrade the video card in a laptop? MXM, mobile PCIe module, easy upgrade video card
What is the most expensive part of the laptop? screen
Differences between laptop and notebook? Notebook = worse processor, no optical disk drive, smaller, no SSD, less RAM, different OS
What is thermal compound? Arctic Silver, allows transfer of heat from CPU to heatsink
2.8GHz using 400 bus speed? 2800 / 400 = 7 .... so 7 is the multiplier (X)
How to overclock? Changing the bus speed is the best way.
How do you get thermal info outside of OS? BIOS (CMOS)
What a passive cooling? No fan
RED BOOK? audio
YELLOW BOOK? stamped
ORANGE BOOK? burn
What Region code is Canada? Everyone? Canada = 1, Everyone =0
What is the CD X speed? X = 150
What is DVD X speed? X = 1350 ( 9 * CD X)
CDRW X/Y/Z ? X= Read Y= Write Z= Rewrite
What is Packet Writing? turned the rewritable disk into a live CD (like a folder)
Difference between bluray and dvd? laser, capacity, speed, layers
Why do Parallel ATA HD have jumpers? to set master and slave
What Parallel bus still used by most motherboard? PCI, white colour
What is Bus Mastering? Transfer data between 2 devices without CPU
Which expansion bus used exclusively for video cards? AGP
What is most common expansion slot used today? PCIe-16
Can you use a PCIe card in PCI slot? NO, serial and parallel, PCIx + PCIe yes
Can all AGP cards be used in all AGP slots? no, some have different connectors?
Backlight? CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps), LED (Light Emitting Diode)
What is a Pixel? Smallest portion of the screen that can be colour
What is Native Resolution? Ideal resolution for monitor
Backlight? CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps), LED (Light Emitting Diode)
What is Contrast Ratio? How close to absolute black it can get?
What is response time? time to go from off to on to off
Passive vs Active Matrix Passive = older and not as good, less transistors. Active Matrix= newer, more transistors, TFT= thin film transistor
Advantages of LCD? Cheap, power, size, weight, no flicker, low radiation
Disadvantages of LCD? Dead pixel, ghosting, no absolute black
What is a Dead/Defective pixel? it's stuck to a certain colour
Where does a breakout box sit? 5.25 bay
Difference of pins wide and narrow SCSI? wide = male, narrow = female
How do you terminate a SCAM? It terminates itself
What is WWN? World Wide Name, used for SAS
What is ZIF? Zero Insertion Force, pins on socket, not on the processor, has a lever
What is LIF? Low Insertion Force, pins on processor
What is PGA? Pin Grid Array, symmetrical linear pins
What is SPGA? Staggered Pin Grid Array, every other row of pins is shifted
What is OTP? Opposite Track Path, middle>>edge>>middle
What is PTP? Parallel Track Path, middle>>edge middle>>edge
What is USB1? Full Speed, 1.5Mbps
What is USB2? High Speed, 480Mbps
What is USB3? Super Speed, 5Gbps
What is a surge suppressor? Combats surges/spikes
What is a line conditioner? Combats brownouts
What is BPS? Backup Power Supply
What is SPS? Standby Power Supply, switches to battery when needed
What is UPS? Uninterruptable Power Supply, power always going through battery, wears out faster.
Created by: Datheral