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Fishery Studies

Fishery Studies stack - nouns and terms with brief descriptions.

QuestionAnswer
The process of a group of individuals forming a cluster. Aggregating
Abundant growth of phytoplankton, typically triggered suddenly by suitable environmental conditions such as excess nutrients. Typically seen in the spring in UK waters. Algal bloom
Name for juvenile fish with the yolk-sac still present. Alevins
The general term given to the cultivation of any aquatic species (plant or animal). Aquaculture
A type of trawl in which the mouth of the net is kept open by a beam which is mounted at each end on guides or skids which travel along the seabed. Beam trawl
Term for organisms attached to, living on, or in the seabed. Benthos
Term for the accumulation of a substance (contaminant) within the tissues of an organism. Bioaccumulation
Term for the variety of living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological structures they make up. Biodiversity
Process in which concentrations of certain substances increase with each step up the food chain. Biomagnification
The total weight of living organisms or total weight of a resource or stock. Biomass
Term meaning having two shells or valves which open and shut. Bivalve
Type of trawl. A large cone-shaped net, which is towed across the seabed. Also called an otter or demersal trawl. Bottom trawl
A fish which is kept for the purpose of reproduction and supply of juveniles. Broodstock
Organisms caught in fishing gear other than the intended catch. By-catch
The salted roe (eggs) of the sturgeon. The roe from other species, e.g. salmon, is used to make a "mock" version of this. Caviar
A mollusc which has a distinct head with prehensile and locomotive organs attached. Examples include the octopus, squid and cuttlefish. Cephalopod
The rear end of a trawl net where the catch accumulates. Cod-end
Abbreviation of the Common Fisheries Policy – The European Union's instrument for the management of fisheries and aquaculture. CFP
Term for the type of contaminants that are permanent additions to the environment and will not decay. Conservative
Group of marine invertebrate animals that live in colonies; appears in a variety of shapes often forming reefs. This word is also a term for crab roe or eggs. Coral
The name for an animal with two pairs of antennae and a hard exoskeleton. Examples include the crab and lobster. Crustacean
Term used to describe the process by which fishing boats are taken out of service or ‘scrapped’. Decommission
Term for fish such as cod, haddock and plaice which live on or near the seabed. Demersal
Name for the process of removing pathogens from shellfish by keeping them in clean water for a period of time before sale. Depuration
Fish that move between fresh and marine waters. Examples include salmon and eels. Diadromous
Fish and other organisms caught by fishing gear and then thrown back into the sea for legal, economic or other reasons. Discards
A method used for harvesting molluscs such as oysters, clams and scallops from the seabed. Dredging
A community of organisms and their environment interacting as an ecological unit. Ecosystem
A parasite that attaches itself and lives off the external surface of a fish. Ectoparasite
Term used to describe fish that have been kept chilled on ice but not deep frozen. Fresh
A fish with fins as opposed to shellfish. Finfish
Term for any activity that involves the catching, taking or harvesting of fish. Fishing
Term for the total quantity of fish that can be taken by a fishing unit, such as an individual, community, vessel or fleet. Fishing capacity
Term for the network of food chains in an ecosystem. Food web
Juvenile fish in the next stage of development after Alevins. Fry
Any tools used to catch fish, such as hook and line, trawls, traps etc. Gear
The phenomenon where lost nets or traps continue to fish. Ghost fishing
A loosely set and near invisible wall of fine netting that traps fish by the gill cover. Gill net
Reproductive organs; testis (male) and ovaries (female). Gonad
Term used to describe the process of sorting fish into similar sizes. This is done to minimise aggression and cannibalism as well as ensuring that fish of a similar size are grown on together and can be harvested at the same time. Grading
Also known as hook and line fishing. A highly selective method of fishing, producing high quality catch. Handlining
The place where fertilised eggs are grow on to fry before being transferred to freshwater tanks. Hatchery
Type of fisheries which do not target species for direct human consumption, such as the capture of fish for reduction into fish meal and fish oil. Industrial
A generic term used to describe fish from pole (or rod) and line, handline or longline fisheries. Line-caught
Method of fishing which uses both vertical and horizontal lines, often a number of miles long, to which short lengths of line (snoods) carrying baited hooks are attached at intervals. Long-lining
Term for the farming of species in sea (marine) water. Mariculture
Term for a fishery comprising more than one species. For example, a Northern European demersal fishery comprised of cod, haddock, whiting, pollack and saithe. Mixed
Fishing with such high intensity it causes a reduction of the breeding stock levels to such an extent that they will no longer support a sufficient quantity of fish for sport or commercial harvest. Overfishing
Term for fish in the upper layers of the ocean where food is plentiful. Examples include include herring, sardine and pilchard. Pelagic
Name of the microscopic plant component of plankton. Phytoplankton
Acoustic device designed to deter marine mammals from entanglement in fishing nets. Pinger
Term for hand held or mechanically operated rod with baited hook or lure. Pole and line
The introduction by man of harmful substances or energy to the marine environment. Pollution
Name for the biological unit representing the individuals of a species living in a specific area. Population
A trap used to capture fish, especially crustaceans such as lobsters. Pot
Term for the share of the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) allocated to a country, vessel, company or individual fishermen. Quota
A straight-sided artificial channel (usually concrete) in which fish are raised. Raceway
An isolated mountain situated on the sea floor. Seamount
Term for the ability to target and capture fish by size and species, allowing by-catch of juvenile and other non-target species to escape unharmed. Selectivity
As opposed to finfish. A collective term used to describe molluscs and crustaceans. Shellfish
Term for the release of eggs, fertilized or to be fertilized. Spawn
Name for the mature part of a stock responsible for reproduction. Spawning stock
Short for Spawning Stock Biomass; the total weight of all sexually mature fish in a population. Spawning stock
Also called fixed gears. Refers to fishing gears that are fixed to or on the seabed such as pots, traps or nets. These types of gears are passive as opposed to mobile gears. Static
Term given to a group of individuals or populations in a species occupying a well-defined spatial range independent of other populations of the same species. Stock
A type of bottom set gill net used to capture flatfish, crustaceans and other species. Tangle net
Term for the species or assemblage of species which are primarily sought in a fishery. Target species
Short for Total Allowable Catch; maximum tonnage, set each year, that may be taken of a fish species within an area. Target species
The animal component of plankton; animals suspended or drifting in the water column including larvae of many fish and invertebrates. Zooplankton
Created by: sjohnson