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BACS 300 Chapter 6

Data Communicaiton

computer network a collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines or wirelessly.
local area network (LAN) connects computers that reside in a single geographic location on the premises of the company that operates the LAN. # computers 1- 100+ SINGLE LOCATION
Wide area networks (WANs) connect computers at different geographic locations. Like computers at separate company sites.Contracts w/ communication vendor
internet a network of networks. connect LANs Wans and other internets. use layered protocols.
the Internet capital "I" collection of networks used to send email or access a website.
protocol a set of rules that two communicating devices follow.
Small Office or a Home Office (SOHO) LAN that have fewer that a dozen or so computers and printers.
switch special purpose computer that receives and transmits wired traffic on the LAN
LAN device contains several important networking componetns including a switch, a device for wireless communication, and usually devices for connecting to a WAN and via WAN to the internet. for SOHO LAN usually provided by phone or cable provider.
network interface card (NIC) device that connects the computer's or printer's circuitry to the network cables. Works with programs in device to implement protocols.
Onboard NIC NIC built into the computer's circuitry
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable most LAN connections. cable contains sets of wires twisted together to improve signal quality.
optical fiber cables LAN connection cables better suited for high traffic. Signals on the cables are light rays that are reflected in the glass core of the optical fiber cable
wireless NIC (WNIC) wireless technology used to connect computers/printers to LAN. Nearly all personal computers have onboard WNIC
access point where the WNIC device connects. The component of the LAN device that processes wireless traffic and communicates with the wired switch. Wireless devices communicate to each other via the access point then switch then wired devices
IEEE 802.3 protocol used for wired LAN connections. AKA ethernet. specifies hardware characteristics, such as which wires carry which signals. Also describes how messages are to be packaged and processed for wired transmission over the LAN.
Ethernet AKA IEEE 802.3
10/100/1000 Ethernet NIC in most personal computers supports this. Conform to 802.3 and allow for transmission rate of 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps
IEEE 802.11 oriticil Used by wireless LAN connections. 802.11g allows speeds up to 54 Mbps
Bluetooth Wireless protocol designed for transmitting data over short distances, replacing cables
Internet Service Provider (ISP) provides useder with INternet access, serves as gateway to Internet, passes communications back and forth between users and the Internest. Pay for Internet. Collect money from customers and pay access fees/other charges on user's behalf
analog a wavy signal. A modem converts the computer's digital data into analog signals that can be transmitted over dial-up Internet connections
modem modulator/demodulator. converts coputer's digital data into signals that can be transmitted over tlephone or cable lines
digital subscriber line data tranmission line that shares telephone lines with voice communication. Used primarily in homes and small businesses. Download speeds up to 6.5 Mbps and slower upload speeds (512 Kbps)
Asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL) DSL lines that have different upload and download speeds
Symmetrical digital subscriber lines (SDSL) DSL lines that have the same upload and download speeds
Cable modems provides high-speed data transmission using cable television lines. Cable company installs fast, high-capaity optical-fiber cable to a distribution center in each neighborhood that is serves. Connects to regular cable-YV cables to homes and businesses.
WAN wireless wide-area network that provides network connections for computing devices such as smartphones, Kindles, or iPads using cell phone technology
EVDO A WAN wireless protocol
HSDPA A WAN wireless protocol
WIMax an emerging technology based on the IEE 802.16 standard. Designed to deliver the "last mile" of wireless broadband access and could ultimately replace cable and DSL for fixed applications and replace cell phones for nomadic and portable applications.
Narrowband Internet communication lines that have transmission speeds of 56 kbps or less. A dial-up modem provides.
Broadband Internet communication lines that have speeds in excess of 256 kbps. DSL and cable modems
TCP/IP Protocol (TCP/IP) architecture protocol architecture having five layes that evolved as a hybrid of the TCP/IP and the OSI architecture. Used on Internet and most internets
Hypertext transport protocol (HTTP) layer-5 protocol used to process web pages
HTTPS indication that a web browser is using the SSL/TLS protocol o ensure secure communicaitons
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) layer-5 architecture used to send mail. Normally used in conjunction with other Layer-5 protocols (POP3, IMAP) for receiving email
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) a layer-5 protocol used to copy files from one computer to another.
Web Internet-based network of browsers and serers that frocess HTTP or HTPS
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Layer 4 of TCP/IP architecture. Receives messages from layer 5 protocols and breaks them into segments that t sends to a layer-3 protocl (like IP)
IP (Internet Protocol) layer-3 protocol. route packets across and internet
packet small peice of an electronic message that has been divided into small chuncks and sent separately then reassembled at the destination
router a special-purpose computer that moves network traffic from one node on a network to another
IP address series of dotted decimals that identifies a unique device on a notwork or internet
Public IP addresses IP address used on the Internet. Assigned to major institutions in blocks by ICANN. Unique across all computers.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) organization responsible for managing the assignment of public IP addresses and domain names for use on the internet.
Private IP addresses type of IP address used within private networks and internets. Assigned and managed by the company that operates the private network or internet.
IPv4 standard for internet addressing that uses four decimal digit notation. Gradually being replaced by IPv4
IPv6 Standard for internet addressin that uses a 128 bit scheme for internet addresses
domain name registered, human-friendly valid name in the domain name system. Process of changing name into its IP address is called resolving the domain name
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) document's address on the web. Begin on right with top-level domain and moving left, are followed by domain name and them optional data that locates document within that domain.
three-tier architecture used by most e-commerce server applications. Refer to 3 different classes of computers. User, server, and database
user tier consists of computers that have browsers that request and process web pages
server tier consists of computers that run Web servers to generate Web pages and other data in response to requests from browsers. Also process application programs.
database tier runs the DBMS and receives and processes SQL request to retrieve and store data
web page documents encoded in HTML that are created, transmitted, and consumed using World Wide Web
web servers program that processes the HTTP protocol and transmits Web pages on demand. also process application programs.
commerce server computer that operates Web-based programs that display products, support online ordering, record and process payments, and interface with inventory-management applications.
web farm facility that runs multiple web servers. work is distributed among the computers in a web farm so as to maximize throughput
Hypertext markup language (HTML) language that defines the structure and layout of Web page content. An HTML tag is a notation used to define a data element for display or other purposes
tag in markup languages like HTML and XML notation used to define a data element for display or other purposes.
hyperlinks pointer on a webpage to another webpage. contains URL of the webpage to access when clicked.
attribute variable that provides properties for HTML tag. Each has a standard name.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document standar that separates documen content, structure, and presentation; eliminates problems in HTML
Flash add-on to browser that was developed by Adobe and is useful for providing animation, movies,and other advanced graphics inside a browser
Silverlight browser add-on developed by Microsoft ot ehance browser features to improve the user interface, include moviess, audio, animation, and provide greater programmer control of user activity.
Virtual Private Network (VPN) WAN connection alternative thta uses the Internet or a private internet to create the appearacne of private point-to-potin connections.
Tunnel virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server
DSL modem operate on the same lines as voice telephones and dial-up modems, operate so signals don't interfere with voice telephone servise. Much gaster than dal-up and always maintain a connection.
Created by: 1229955762