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Applied Multimedia

Higher Info Sys Applied Multimedia

TermDefinition
multimedia the combination of different media types into an computer based interactive environment
applied multimedia: business uses the use of multimedia by organisations to enhance and improve the operation of the organisation
applied multimedia: training uses the use of multimedia to educate users
applied multimedia: home uses the use of multimedia for personal use
applied multimedia: e-commerce the use of multimedia by business to buy and sell goods and services through online transactions conducted over computer networks
applied multimedia: presentation the use of multimedia by business to display information about a topic to inform an audience
applied multimedia: teleconferencing the use of multimedia by business to allow interactive communication between people in two or more locations
applied multimedia: collaborative working the use of multimedia by business to allow a number of people to work jointly on the same project
applied multimedia: CBT the use of multimedia to teach new topics or provide an opportunity to practice new skills
applied multimedia: simulation the use of multimedia to create a realistic representation of an environment in which users can interact to learn and practice new skills
applied multimedia: entertainment the use of multimedia at home for leisure purposes such as computer gaming, video and audio on demand and film previews
applied multimedia: edutainment the use of multimedia at home that combines learning and leisure into a single experience such as virtual tourism,interactive maps and online encyclopedia
applied multimedia: shopping the use of multimedia at home for buying and selling items such as Tesco online, ebay and Next directory on CD-ROM
Analysis stage of development cycle that involves working out exactly what is to be done through discussion between client and developer and carrying out a full examination of the problem to be solved
Design stage of development cycle that involves planning a solution to match the specification - includes navigation structure, human computer interface, screen layout and media elements to be used
Implementation stage of development cycle that involves carrying out the plan to actually create the multimedia product
Testing stage of development cycle that involves checking the multimedia product works properly and in accordance with specification
Documentation stage of development cycle that involves writing associated manuals, guides and other documents for a multimedia product
Evaluation stage of development cycle that involves checking the multimedia product is fit for the purpose specified and is clear in its presentation
Delivery media this is the method used to make multimedia products available to the user
Delivery media: CD-ROM optical storage medium with data capacity of 700Mb - data contents can not be altered or updated - data transfer rate depends on speed of optical drive
Delivery media: DVD-ROM optical storage medium with data capacity up to 17Gb - data contents can not be altered or updated
Delivery media: kiosk widely used as public information points - capacity depends on size of hard disk inside a robust cabinet - networked to central computer allows updating of data
Delivery media: WWW cross platform environment used to present pages written in HTML stored on hard disks and servers connected to the Internet - data can easily be updated but transfer rate affected by bandwidth
Delivery media: mobile communications device portable device used to access up to date information remotely - data stored on remote drives - window size of mobile device often limited
Delivery media: hybrid combination of delivery methods used on a single product such as CD-ROM with active hyperlinks to WWW - allows access to up to date or dynamic information
Delivery media: virtual reality interactive environment created using 3D graphics to represent a real world situation access through VR headset or data glove
project brief short description of a multimedia product to be created containing little detail of actual product, just a general outline of clients wishes
requirements specification formal contractual document outlining in detail a multimedia product to be created - provides a plan to be followed throughout development stages
purpose the aims and objectives of a multimedia product, gives an impression of the overall product and the content to be included
audience the intended user of a multimedia product - describes age group, computer experience and ability, level of education, language skills etc
content the material to be included in a multimedia product - often supplied by subject expert, survey, interviews or through research
delivery media the method to be used by end user to access a multimedia product
budget the level of finance allocated to a multimedia product - how much is to be paid, when it is to be paid, conditions of payment etc
timescale the length of time allocated to the development of a multimedia product - stage deadlines, final completion date etc
client the organisation or person that commissions a new multimedia product - uses the requirements specification to establish precise description of product required
multimedia developer the organisation or group of personnel commissioned to create and test a multimedia product - uses the requirements specification as a guide to follow throughout the project
navigation structure a map showing how nodes are linked to each other and how the user moves from one node to another
linear navigation structure where nodes follow in a sequence one after another
hierarchical navigation structure where nodes are organised into categories and sub-sections accessible from a main menu
web navigation structure where nodes are interconnected and can accessed in any order by the user
composite navigation structure where nodes are connected in a part linear and part hierarchical structure
back tracking technique used to avoid 'Lost in Hyperspace' by use of 'back' button to return to the previous node visited
highlighting technique used to avoid 'Lost in Hyperspace' by use of a geographic indication of where the user is by highlighting the current section or dimming out other sections - like an arrow on a map
history technique used to avoid 'Lost in Hyperspace' by use of a list of all nodes visited
bookmark technique used to avoid 'Lost in Hyperspace' by allowing favourite nodes to be added to a list of regularly visited nodes
breadcrumb technique used to avoid 'Lost in Hyperspace' by use of a trail of nodes visited to indicate the path taken to reach the current node
search (AND, OR, NOT) technique used to avoid 'Lost in Hyperspace' by using advanced search facilities including AND, OR, NOT to specify clear criteria to locate matching nodes
user interface the means of communication between the user and the multimedia product software - how the user issues instructions, how the program displays messages
CLI type of user interface - command line interface - requires user to type instructions via a keyboard
menu driven type of interface where user selects commands from a list of options displayed in a list
form fill-in type of interface that requires the user to enter data into relevant areas on a pre-designed screen layout
direct manipulation type of user interface that makes use of windows, icons, menus and pointer to enter commands and display information
metaphors technique used in user interface to give a visual representation of a function to be carried out
consistency technique used in designing a good user interface which utilises similar elements, colour schemes and layout throughout
level of ability technique used in designing a good user interface which allows for different types of interface depending on expertise
feedback technique used in designing a good user interface which provides confirmation of functions being carried out or dialog boxes to explain operations
error correction technique used in designing a good user interface which provides clear instructions to prevent errors but allows the user to make changes easily if required
information overload technique used in designing a good user interface to avoid too much information being presented at once, cluttering the screen with too many windows or cramming in so much information that it is difficult to deal with
outline storyboard sketch of each screen to show how it fits into the overall multimedia product - gives overview of product design
detailed storyboard detailed sketch of each screen showing precise information on each element - user interactivity, text, audio, video, graphics, links, navigation, background
kerning technique used on text to adjust the spacing between letters especially with large font sizes where gaps are more obvious
anti aliasing technique used on text to reduce the zigzag appearance on curved letters by shading pixels along the edge of the curves
embedded font technique used to save font description file with a document so users software does not replace unknown fonts with an alternative affecting appearance of product
graphical font technique used to incorporate titles or logos as graphic objects
gamma correction technique used with graphics to change the brightness or color balance so images do not appear bleached out or too dark
dithering technique used with graphics to attempt to display a colour it is not capable of actually displaying by mixing colours it can display - compensates for different colour depths on variety of hardware/software
web palette technique used with graphics to present 216 colours identically on all browsers and operating systems
progressive display technique used with graphic displays to make an image comes into focus as it is being displayed - the whole image starts as very low-quality, but becomes sharper as the lines fill in after further scans
streamed audio technique used with sound files to play in real time as the file is transferred across a network connection
download audio technique used with sound files to save the file onto a hard drive - after it is completely saved it can be played and replayed
streamed video technique used with motion picture files to play in real time as the file is transferred across a network connection
download video technique used with motion picture files to save the file onto a hard drive - after it is completely saved it can be played and replayed
user controls set of buttons available to user to play, fast forward, rewind, stop, pause, adjust volume and adjust window size of video clips
flashing sequences issue identified with flicker screens and flashing images which cause epilepsy - developer must adhere to guidelines
TIFF type of graphic file which stores a large bitmap of an image usually without compression - used for scanned images
JPEG type of graphic file with built in lossy compression to eliminate redundant data by cutting out parts of the shading - used widely for photographs and web images
GIF type of graphic file which allows for transparency, may use lossless compression - widely used for logos, clipart, animated images
MP3 type of digital audio file which stores recorded sound or captured sound as samples
MIDI type of audio file that does not store actual sound but instead holds instructions of how to create the sound so very small file size - cannot have spoken word
MPEG type of video file which is used to store motion pictures
colour depth the number of colours each pixel of an image may have - using 1 bit only allows 2 colours (black and white) but 24 bit colour allows millions of colours per pixel
resolution the number of pixels in a certain area of an image - measured in dots per inch
compression technique used to reduce file sizes of graphics, audio and video files by eliminating unnecessary data in the file - lossy and lossless compression algorithms can be used
sample frequency the number of times per second a digital audio file is sampled - increasing this rate increases file size but also improves the quality of the sound file
sample resolution the number of bits of memory used to store each digital audio sample - increasing the number of bits increases the file size but also improves the quality of the sound file
frame rate the number of frames per second displayed on screen for video images - faster frame rate produces a smoother image
window size the measurements of the viewing area to display video clips
presentation software type of multimedia creation software used to create (linear) product as a set of slides - limited user interface but can include action buttons and hot spots
icon based authoring software type of multimedia authoring software used to create product by placing icons on a flow chart to represent resources, interaction and sequence of events
scripting authoring software type of multimedia authoring software used to create product by writing instructions in a special language called a script - scripts are placed onto a timelime to give precise timing of events and interaction
web page creation software type of multimedia creation software used to create product written in HTML for display on web browser - visual editors and HTML editors both available
stand alone delivery application type of program created when a multimedia product is packaged up, along with all its associated files, into a single program that can be run without any other software installed
player application type of program used to run other applications such as Flash Player, Shockwave player, Media Player
personnel: project manager person responsible for overall development of a product
personnel: multimedia designer person responsible for the overall design of a multimedia product
personnel: subject expert person who provides content for a multimedia product
personnel: media specialist person responsible for creating, editing and manipulating multimedia elements to be incorporated into a product - specialises in one area of expertise - sound engineer, video engineer, animator, graphic designer
personnel: multimedia programmer person responsible for creating the overall multimedia product by using authoring tools
personnel: web master person responsible for delivery of a product on a day to day basis - managing server hardware and software, monitoring usage and dealing with feedback and issues arising from use
URL the address of a resource on WWW - used to specify the location of a node - structure is protocol://hostname/path/filename.extension
absolute pathname the full address of a node using complete domain name including hostname
relative pathname the address of a node indicating location in relation to the current node - without the full protocol or hostname
node a container of information such as a web page, screen or graphics on a page
link the address of a destination anchor
anchor has two parts - source is the visible part you click on to follow a link, destination is the invisible part you are taken to when you follow a link
screen testing checking that the application matches the design and works correctly - done using a checklist of all tests to be done on layout, buttons and navigation, media clips, spell check, consistency across screens
integration testing testing done after screen testing to check all the screen works together
acceptance testing testing done by the client to ensure the product meets the specification and that the contract has been completed successfully
usability testing testing carried out by a group of potential users who perform a number of typical operations to assess user friendliness, error recovery and overall impression
project development documentation manuals and documents that contain all the work done during the development process including requirements specification, navigation map, storyboard, record of testing
user documentation manuals and documents provided to assist the user including hardware and software requirements, installation guide, tutorial, user guide, FAQs and troubleshooting guide
"Copyright, Designs and Patents Act" legislation that addresses the entitlement to use materials created by others while protecting the rights of authors
obtaining copyright protection steps to be taken to protect your own material include showing the authors name, date of publication, copyright symbol
copyright duration period of time for which copyright applies to material
legal redress penalties available for breach of copyright include payment of damages, seizure of material containing copyrighted work and seizure of equipment used in copying
tracing breach of copyright techniques used to track copyright material which has been used illegally
enforced online registration users must register product and enter a registration code or serial number to ensure valid licence before software can be used
digital watermark a hidden message embedded in a file that asserts your ownership of copyright of the material - can be used to identify your work and trace it when used by others
fitness for purpose techniques used to evaluate software by checking the product does what it is supposed to do, works efficiently and is robust and maintainable
accessibility evaluation techniques used in evaluation to assess how easy a product is to use for a range of users including disabled users
clarity of presentation techniques used in evaluation to assess how clear the product is for users - is the navigation method obvious, do colour clashes make viewing difficult
Created by: MIssRussell