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Using Information

Higher Info Sys Using Information

TermDefinition
data unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning
information processed data that has meaning and context
knowledge gained from information and used to help make decisions
metadata data about data
category: source describes the origin of the information - classified as primary, secondary, internal or external
category: nature describes the manner in which the information is communicated and whether it can be measured or not - classified as formal or informal, qualitative or quantitative
category: level describes who or where the information is used in an organisation - classified as strategic, tactical or operational
category: time describes when the information refers to - classified as past, present or future
category: frequency describes when the information is available or updated - classified as continuous, hourly, daily, monthly, annually
category: use describes the purpose of the information in an organisation - classified as planning, decision making or control
category: form describes how the information is recorded or presented - classified as visual, aural or written
category: type describes quantity and structure of the information - classified as sampled, aggregated or detailed
characteristic: relevance good information must be appropriate for intended use
characteristic: accuracy good information must be correct
characteristic: completeness good information must be inclusive with nothing missed out
characteristic: reliability good information must be trustworthy so that it can be relied on, and must not be biased
characteristic: timing good information must be available when it is required
characteristic: level of detail good information must be detailed enough for the purpose but without lots of extra bits included - should be concise
characteristic: presentation good information should be displayed in a suitable manner so that the user can easily understand it and make sense of it
characteristic: availability good information should be easy to access
characteristic: cost good information may carry a financial charge - the price paid to obtain information
characteristic: value good information is very important to an organisation or individual
data processing system a computerised system that deals with repetitive processing tasks on a day to day basis often involving large number crunching
expert system a computer program that tries to emulate human reasoning - made up of knowledge base, inference engine and user interface
management information system a computer system converts data from a data processing system into information required for planning, leading, organising and controlling an organisation
executive information system a computer system analyses, compares and identifies trends in data to help the strategic direction of an organisation
decision support system an interactive computer system used to explore a range of alternatives with a variety of conditions to assist a manager make decisions about the future of an organisation
network strategy a set of guidelines and policies that allow an organisation to set up and maintain a system to distribute information around the organisation effectively and efficiently
upgrade strategy a set of guidelines used to assist in acquiring a newer or enhanced version of an existing piece of hardware or software
backup strategy a set of procedures established by an organisation to avoid the loss of data
software strategy a set of guidelines in an organisation to plan for purchasing and obtaining new software applications
security strategy a set of guidelines and policies that allow an organisation to ensure the data in the organisation is not open to unauthorised use
network topology the physical structure and layout used to connect devices together on a network
client/server network architecture network setup where a workstation communicates with a host computer. The workstation requests information, the host responds to the request by sending the results back to the workstation
network adapter a circuit board installed in to a computer to allow it to send and receive data
structured cabling the physical connections for a network including cabling, hubs and switches
network operating system system software required on a network to control which users and workstations can access the server and to keep users data secure
network account a username and password set up to allow access rights to certain parts of the network and to allow for data storage on central servers
network audit software software used to keep track of network activity and to record user activity and workstation activity
data security protection against physical loss of data due to failure of hardware or software
data integrity ensuring data is accurate and is not exposed to accidental or malicious alteration
privacy of data keeping data safe from unauthorised users
virus a piece of programming code that can replicate itself and causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event in a computer system
hacking gaining or attempting to gain unauthorised access to a computer information system with the intent to destroy, disrupt or carry out illegal activity on the network or system
denial of service an attack on a network where a server is flooded with a very large number of requests for information creating a huge amount of network traffic resulting in server overload and crashing
security procedures guidelines and policies established in a organisation to advise employees on security measures such as code of conduct and password guidelines
virus protection technique used to implement data security by installing software to prevent virus infection, detect virus infection and repair virus infection
firewall technique used to implement data security by a device or piece of software installed to stop information from certain locations and IP addresses being transferred
encryption technique used to implement data security by translating data into a secret code so that anyone intercepting the data can not make sense of it
access rights technique used to implement data security by assigning designated users with different levels of access or privileges
archiving technique used to copy data from hard disk onto tape or other media for long term storage after use
recovery techniques used to verify and retrieve backup files from storage
storage methods techniques used to make another copy of data in case of damage to original - full backup, incremental backup, rotation, file ancestry
future proofing making sure that a system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon.
legacy system old information systems running on out-of-date hardware and operating systems
emulation a technique that uses a program to allow data to be transferred between platforms so that old version of software may be run on otherwise incompatible platforms
software evaluation: functionality criteria used to judge whether software is capable of carrying out the required tasks using features available in the application
software evaluation: performance criteria used to judge whether software operates to standard of industry benchmarks
software evaluation: usability criteria used to judge whether software has a good look and feel, has a good user interface
software evaluation: compatibility criteria used to judge whether software is able to work with current operating system
software evaluation: data migration criteria used to judge whether software is able to translate data from one format to another
software evaluation: resource requirements criteria used to judge whether software is able to run on the hardware specification available
software evaluation: portability criteria used to judge whether software is able to work on different platforms or operating systems
software evaluation: support criteria used to judge whether software provides assistance from vendors or writers
on the job training user support in the form of simple tutorial to familiarise employees within new software as they carry out tasks
in-house training user support in the form of a training course run for a small group of staff by the IT department
external training user support in the form of a course offered by specialist training providers
manuals user support in the form of documentation to refer to for assistance
online help/tutorial user support in the form of programs built in to the software to explain features and give demonstration how to use them
help desk user support in the form of a technician at the end of a phone line to assist with problems
newsgroups user support in the form of messages posted to forums accessible by the wider community
FAQs user support in the form of a file that contains a list of commonly asked user queries - frequently asked questions
distributed database a database controlled by central database management system but all the storage devices are not attached to a common CPU.
data warehouse the main repository of an organisation's historical data
data mining the process of automatically searching large volumes of data for patterns
house style technique used to improve consistency of presentation - a standard combination of font, style, layout, colour used regularly within an organisation
template technique used to improve consistency of presentation - a pre-made page with elements already in position ready for content to be added.
goal seeking a technique used in spreadsheet software used to automatically change the values in a formula until a desired result is achieved
forecasting a technique used in spreadsheet software used to calculate or predict a future value based on existing values
lookup tables a technique used in spreadsheet software used to code and decode values from quantitative data into qualitative data
nested if a technique used in spreadsheet software used to test a conditional formula within more than two possible outcomes - it uses a IF function inside another IF function
count a technique used in spreadsheet software to find the total number of occurrences of certain data
macro a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive tasks
timelining the process of allocating times and dates to task within a project using project management software
resource allocation the process of allocating equipment, tools, machinery, employees or anything else needed to complete a task - recorded using project management software
Gantt chart a type of graphical display showing information about a project and its progress - created using project management software
optimization a technique used in project management to achieve the end aim efficiently - by meeting schedule, meeting budget, meeting scope
critical path analysis a technique used in project management that identifies the series of dependant tasks that must be completed in a project
word processing software type of application software used to present information for print media - to edit and manipulate text documents
desktop publishing software type of application software used to present information for print media - to edit and manipulate text documents intended for professional printing
spreadsheet software type of application software used for data handling, especially numerical and statistical data
project management software type of application software used to plan, monitor and control the various activities and resources that contribute to a successful project
personal information management type of application software used by an individual to manage and manipulate their personal data such as contacts, calendars, tasks and communication
web authoring type of application software used to present information for online media in the form of web pages in HTML
presentation software type of application software used to present information for online media in the form of a sequence of slides
globalization a social impact of ICT that has led to the integration of economies and societies around the world
social implications the effects that ICT has on individuals lives, their environment, social structures and daily events
Data Protection Act piece of legislation that deals with processing of personal information
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act piece of legislation that addresses the entitlement to use materials created by others while protecting the rights of authors
Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act piece of legislation that governs the interception of communications
Computer Misuse Act piece of legislation that governs the unauthorised access or modification of data
Freedom of Information Act piece of legislation that grants right of access to information held by local authorities and other public bodies
Health and Safety regulations employers responsibilities to ensure employees have a safe working environment in relation to ICT
economic implications the effects that ICT has on business, financial institutions, shopping and ecommerce
ethical implications the effects that ICT has in terms of morals and beliefs and acting within the law
Created by: MIssRussell