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350 - EXAM 2


How is stimulus type coded? Labeled lines – receptors are sensitive to one physical stimulus
How is stimulus location coded? Anatomical pathways or “labeled lines”
How is stimulus intensity coded? Frequency of action potentials
How is stimulus duration coded? Adaptation to sustained stimulus
What is recruitment? Activating more sensory units
What is a sensory unit? A single sensory neuron and its receptor field
What is the function of lateral inhibition? To increase accuracy of perception of stimulus location
What is a receptor field? area of skin that will cause a change in afferent firing
Where are rapidly adapting vs. slowing adapting receptors useful? When sitting the rapidly adapting receptors are helpful so you don’t feel your bum the whole time while slowing adapting is good for posture control or holding your pencil.
What are the 2 main ascending sensory pathways? Specific ascending pathways and nonspecific ascending pathways
Where do the 3 neurons in each pathway terminate? receptor – thalamus - cortex
What is the relationship between receptor field size and sensory acuity? Smaller the receptors size the finer the discrimination.
Why are the areas of somatosensory cortex that represent the face, lips, and fingers larger than other areas? They have more primary sensory neurons needed for find discrimination.
Explain the process of the modulation of pain in the CNS the CNS modifies Pain by releasing opiates, which decrease the pain (analgesia)
What is the mechanism for referred pain? Pain fibers from the visceral organs converge on the same neurons in the spinal cord (non specific pathways)
How are the amplitude and frequency of a sound way subjectively experienced? Volume/Pitch
What is the function of the middle ear bones? Lever to match air movement to fluid mvmt
How do hair cells transduce vibrations into a receptor potential? opening K channels
How is the amplitude of a sound coded? Action potential frequency
How is the frequency of a sound coded? position of the hair cells in the basilar membrane
What area of the cortex is responsible for speech perception? Wernikes
Why are there 3 semicircular canals per side and how do they differ? XYZ alignment- different planes
What do semicircular canals transduce? head movement
How are movements in opposite directions coded by the canals? Depolarization – Stimulation; Hyperpolarization – Inhibition
What do the utricle/saccule compartments transduce? Head position
What is the function of the otoliths? ear rock – they move w/ gravity
What is the photosensitive region of the eye? retina
What are the 2 structures of the eye that focus light rays into the retinal surface? Cornea – major refraction and Lens – adjusts refractions
What is accommodation and how does it work? focuses light at different differences via Lens
What is myopia and how is it corrected? Nearsightedness, concave lens (bending light too much)
What is hyperopia and how is it corrected? farsightedness, convex lens (bending light too little)
What’s the difference between rods and cones? Rods are brightness sensitive, and are located throughout the retina while Cones are light wavelength sensitive and are concentrated on the fovea centralis
How is the taste submodalities transduced in general? open channel – depolarization
How are odiferous molecules detected and transduced? the G protein coupler receptor
What brain system is olfactory cortex closely associated with? The limbic system
What are the roles of T tubules? AP conduction
What transmitter/receptor combination is utilized at the neuromuscular junction? ACh and Nicotinic
What is the cellular mechanism responsible for muscle tetany? increased calcium release
What are the 3 sources of energy for muscle contraction? FA, glycogen, creatine phosphase
What are the 2 metabolic processes that are used by muscle fibers? oxidative phosphorylase and glycolysis
What do muscle spindles monitor? Length
What do golgi tendon organs monitor? Tension
What are alpha and gamma motor neurons? alpha – golgi tendon organ; gamma – muscle spindles
What does “reciprocal innervation” refer to? opposing muscle groups
What are antagonistic muscles? Opposing
What are synergistic muscles? Muscles that work toward the same movement together
What is the stretch reflex? In muscle spindles where during contractions synergistic extensors are activated to increase contractile force
What is the function of the stretch reflex? to stabilize
What is the function of the tendon organ reflex? to prevent over stretching
What information is sent to the brain from the muscle spindles? Proprioception
What information is sent to the brain from the withdrawal reflex circuit? Noiceptor – pain.
What area of the CNS control posture? hindbrain
What area of the CNS control locomotion? midbrain
What area of the CNS control Automatic movements and habit formation? Basal ganglia
What area of the CNS control voluntary and fine movement? Primary motor cortex
Created by: Kayerenee



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