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BLHVN respiratory

Respiratory physiology review

What are the two "zones" that the respiratory system is divided into? Respiratory and conducting
Where does the exchange of gas between air and blood occur? (which zone) the respiratory zone
What are the 3 functions of "respiration"? ventilation, gas exchange, and oxygen utilization
Define ventilation: breathing; the mechanical process that moves air into and out of the lungs
Gas exchange occurs between: occurs between the air and blood in the lungs and between the blood and other tissues of the body
Oxygen utilization during respiration: the tissues liberate energy from the reactions of cell respiration
Ventilation and exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the air and blood external respiration
Gas exchange between the blood and other tissues and oxygen utilization by the tissues internal respiration
Concentrations of oxygen in air and blood: O2 is higher in air than in blood, so oxygen diffuses into the blood from the air
Concnetrations of carbon dioxide: CO2 is higher in the blood than the air, so it diffuses OUT of the blood and into the air
How does gas exchange occur between the blood and air? It occurs entirely by diffusion through lung tissue.
Gas exchange occurs across tiny (0.25 - 0.50 mm in diameter) air sacs called alveoli
How many alveoli are in the lungs? an estimated 300 million
What is the estimated surface are in the lungs? 60-80 sq. meters or 760 sq. ft.
How thick is an alveolus? (singular for alveoli) Only 1 cell layer.
How does the thinness of the alveolus affect the rate of diffusion? It speeds it up
How thick is the air blood barrier? An alveolar cell and a capillary endothelial cell (so about 2 micrometers)make up the air-blood barrier.
2 types of alveolar cells: Type I and Type II
Type I alveolar cells: comprise 95-97% of the total surface area of the lung. Gas exchange with the blood primarily occurs through these cells. Very thin.
Type II alveolar cells: are the cells that secrete pulmonary surfactant and that reabsorb sodium and water, preventing fluid buildup in the alveoli.
What is included in the respiratory zone? the respiratory bronchioles (contain separate outpouchings of alveoli) and the terminal alveolar sacs.
What is included in the conducting zone? it includes all of the anatomical structures through which air passes before reaching the respiratory zone.
Flow of air in the respiratory system Air enters the mouth or nose, to the pharynx past the glottis, to the larynx, into the trachea, to the primary bronchi, to terminal bronchioles, to the alveoli
Sturdy tube supported by rings of cartilage trachea
The cavity behind the palate that receives the contents of both the oral and nasal passages pharynx
A valvelike opening between the vocal chords through which air must pass in order to enter or leave the trachea and lungs glottis
The ventricular and vocal chords. Also called the voice box. Guards the entrance to the trachea. Larynx
The largest cartilage of the larynx that projects at the front of the throat is commonly called the adam's apple
The structures of the conducting zone serve additional functions such as: warming and humidification of the inspired air, and filtration and cleaning.
Purpose of mucus secreted by the cells of the conducting zone: the mucus traps small particles in the inspired air and thereby performs a filtration function
Diaphragm a dome-shaped sheet of striated muscle. It divides the anterior body cavity into two parts: below the diaphragm is the abdominopelvic cavity and above it is the thoracic cavity.
Contains the liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, genitourinary tract, and other organs abdominopelvic cavity
Contatins the heart, large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and thyamus in the central region and is filled elsewhere by the right and left lungs thoracic cavity
Central region mediastium
Pleural membranes two layers of wet epithelial membrane that envelope the central region/mediastium. When lungs are filled, the two membranes push against each other
parietal pleura superficial layer, lines the inside of the thoracic wall.
visceral pleura deep layer, covers the surface of the lungs
The movement of air into and out of the lungs occurs through pressure differences induced by changes in lung volumes
Physical properties of the lungs that influence ventilation elasticity, compliance, and surface tension
Airflow through bronchioles proportions: is directly proportional to the pressure difference and inversely proportional to the frictional resistance to flow (air flow = delta P/ fric. resistance)
Created by: Breanna.Terrell



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