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psychosocial 2013

Exam 4

How many Americans reported day long pain episode? 1 out of 4
Most common pain lower back and headaches
__of people with chronic pain cannot perform occupations 2/3
Define Pain "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage"
Nature of pain is _____ and _____ complex and multi-faceted
2 types of pain acute and chronic
The Biopsychosocial Model divides pain into 4 domains. What are they? Nocioception, pain, suffering and pain behavior
What is nocioception? the perception of physical pain
Define suffering. the negative affective response to pain. Personal and can be manifest by fear, anxiety or depression
Define pain behavior. actions or reactions that a person says or does (moaning or taking pain meds)or does not do (job attendance), which communicates to others the presence of pain. Observable and readily influenced by spiritual, cultural, familial, and environmental factors
Visual Analogue Scale most common; a line that goes from no pain to pain as bad as it possibly could be. The pt would draw line where they feel their pain is at
Numerical Rating Scale assigns numbers; 0 being no pain, 5= moderate pain, 10= worst pain possible; a change of 2 points is significant
Verbal Rating Scale descriptive words paired with numbers; pt picks words that describe the pain
McGill Pain Questionnaire looks at 3 dimensions other than pain intensity; has 20 categories; 4 components
What are the 3 dimensions of the McGill Pain Questionnaire? sensory, affective, and evaluative
What are the 4 components of the McGill Pain Questionnaire? location of pain, descriptive terms, how pain has changed over time and intensity scale
Sensory dimension one dimension of pain including temporal, spatial, pressure, and thermal properties
Affective dimension one dimension of pain referring to fear, tension, and autonomic properties
Evaluative dimension one dimension of pain referring to the subjective overall intensity of the pain experience (annoying, miserable, unbearable)
What are some examples of pain behavior? c/o pain, guarded movement, bracing, posturing, limping, rubbing, facial expressions, health care utilization, and receiving compensation
The University of Alabama Pain Behavior Scale reliable, valid. Records frequency of communication barriers, mobility behaviors and medications
Brief Pain Inventory reliable and valid instrument that is used to measure pain interference. Measures how much pain interferes with functions and helps determine tolerance levels
Pain Diary record intensity, medications and its effect, rest time, activity level, thoughts, mood and what they were doing, where and when pain free
Canadian Occupational Performance Measure detects changes over time in individuals perception of occupational performance. 10 pt scale. Does not necessarily measure pain
motivational interviewing a counseling approach that recognizes that consumers who need to make behavior changes approach intervention at different levels of readiness. Non-judgmental approach attempts to increase consumers' awareness of potential problems faced by the behavior
MOHO Primary goal is to ____, despite pain increase roles
respondent treatment for pain strive to eliminate or reduce tissue irritation or damage; try to change response to pain, use biofeedback, try exercise, heat, adaptive equipment, try relaxation; used for acute pain
operant strategies states pain is caused by environment, reinforce positive behaviors, ignore negative behavior
Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies changing thought patterns, could be hypnosis or guided therapy
______ often first approach to acute pain pain medications
What is the problems with pain meds? often provide partial but not full relief, addictive and does not look at problem
What are 2 surgical interventions for pain? nerve block and cordotomy
Example of cutaneous stimulation for pain? TENS
OT goals for pain mgmt increase activity levels and participation; health maintenance
Quota Programs an individual preset number of exercise or activity repetitions or duration based on consumer's mean baseline score; used to increase tolerance; set slightly below baseline tolerance- set increases and rest breaks
True or false: biofeedback is immediate. true
People with good ______________ skills are more likely to be engaged in competitive employment. social
Most occupational roles rely on the ability to ______________________. communicate
Why might skill building in a natural context be difficult? Because the client might be discouraged if they do not succeed the first time.
Social cognition allows us to understand the ______________________ world. interpersonal
What are the 3 component skills of social skills training? Social perception (receiving), social cognition (processing), behavioral response (expressing)
What are the 5 developmental levels? parallel, project, egocentric-cooperative, cooperative, mature
What is the typical age of the parallel level? 18 months-2 years
What is the typical age of the project level? 2-4 years
What is the typical age of the egocentric-cooperative level? 5-7 years
What is the typical age of the cooperative level? 9-12 years
What is the typical age of the mature level? 15-18 years
What are some characteristics of the parallel level in a group? individuals work or play in the presence of each other. awareness of others in the group, but not much interaction or sharing
What are some characteristics of the project level in a group? interaction primarily involves the task of the group, with some sharing, cooperation, and competition.
What are some characteristics of the egocentric-cooperative level in a group? Individuals are actively involved in selecting and jointly engaging in long-term tasks. Participation remains based on self-interest, but also involves recognition that their needs will be met through meeting the needs of others.
What are some characteristics of the cooperative level in a group? Task is secondary to mutual need fulfillment. Group membership is compatible. Group leader is a consultant rather than an active authority figure.
What are some characteristics of the mature level in a group? Membership can be heterogenous. Members participate flexibly in both task completion and the gratification of member needs. Members can assume a variety of roles, including leadership.
What is the processes and functions that allow a person to understand, act on, and benefit from the interpersonal world? Social cognition
What is a process of optimizing social functioning of individuals with disabilities and improving their repertoire of skills for community functioning such as indentifying and mending problems in social relationships, daily life, work, and leisure? Social skills training
What are the 3 primary therapeutic factors of groups? socializing techniques, imitative behavior, interpersonal learning
What does BAFPE stand for? The Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation
What are the two parts of the BAFPE? 1) Social Interaction Scare (SIS) 2) Task Oriented Assessment
The SIS is an observational assessment of ____________ verbal and nonverbal behaviors in __________ different settings. 75
What are the 5 different settings in which the BAFPE assesses? 1) a 1:1 interview 2)mealtime 3) an unstructed group 4) a structured activity group 5) a structured verbal group
What are the 3 different areas addressed in the COTE? general behaviors, interpersonal/communication skills, and task behaviors
The interpersonal/communication skills includes which 6 behaviors? independence, cooperation, self-assertion, sociability, attention-getting begavior, and negative response from others
What is unique about the Social Functioning Interview (SFI)? It looks at both the past and the present role functioning
The SFI explores situations the person sees as _________________. difficult
The Social FUnctioning Scale was created for individuals with ____________________. schizophrenia
In the Independent Living Skills Survey _______ of 103 skills are social skills. 9
The Maryland Assessment of Social Competence uses _______________ to resolve problems. role playing
The Maryland Assessment of Social Competence addresses changing _________________ cues. social
Social Skills Training (SST) is highly ___________________ and breaks skills into small steps. structured
In SST, always provide _______________ feedback and suggestion for improvement. positive
In SST, it is important to let the client know that failure ______________. happens
Responsive Social Skills Training combines _____________________ with social skills training in a group environment. problem-solving
Cognitive _____________ is a common symptom in mental illnesses. impairment
What is process associated with perceiving, making sense of, and using information? cognition
What are the 3 components of cognition? attention, memory, and executive function
Social skills [are/are not] automatic. are not
What type of attention requires minimal amount of attention? automatic
Automatic attention leads to efficiency but can lead to ______________________. errors/safety issues
What type of attention requires a maximum amount of attention? controlled
What type of skills are learning when using controlled attention? new skills or ones that have been changed
What type of attention includes sorting out and focusing on relevant stimuli? selective
Distractors can be both ______________ and ________________. internal and external
What theory suggests that there is a limit to the amount of information a person can attend to at any one point in time? The Filter Theory
Which theory proposes that unattended information is not totally blocked, but is turned down? The Attenuation Theory
What kind of attention deals with cqarrying out more than one task? Divided attention
What are the 3 ways that multi-tasking can work? 1) Alternate attention between tasks 2) One task is automativ so require minimal attention 3) Practicing both taks together
Most people do better when focusing on ____________ task. one
People with ______________ impairments should avoid multi-tasking. attentional
What refers to the ability to sustain attention over time? vigilence
What are some strategies to support vigilence? breaks, optimizing rate, making stimulus obvious
Vigilence can lessen in what kind of situations? time, speed of presentation of stimulus, infrequent exposure, and hard to detect stimulus
What are some strategies to address automatic and controlled processes? simplify tasks, repeated practice
What are some strategies to address selective attention? reduction of irrelevant stimuli, use cues, enhance and intensify important information, address internal distractions
What are some strategies to address divided attention? Separate tasks to focus attention, work toward making one or more taks automatic, practive doing the two tasks together
What are the 3 main types of memory? Short term, long term, and working memory
Short term memory are held for only a matter of ___________ or ___________. seconds or minutes
Short term memory has a capacity for _______ items. 7
When dealing with short term memory, __________________ leads to storage. rehearsal
What are the 3 types of long term memory? Semantic, episodic, and procedural
Semantic memory focuses on ____________. facts
Semantic memory is ___________ created and forgotten. easily
What involves finding meaning meaning in facts to enable one to remember it? deep processing
What is the memory for events that have happened to you? episodic
What is the memory about how to do something? Procedural
Much of OT is helping people create ____________ memory. procedural
Which type of long term memory is the hardest to lose? procedural
What kind of memory involves short term memory storage and active manipulation of new information? Working memory
What are the 3 components of working memory? 1) Phonological loop 2) Visuospatial sketchpad 3) central executive
What is the phonological loop? inner speech, verbal information
What is the visuospatial sketchpad? visual information
What is the central executive? chooses and directs process/flow
What is a strategy to address short term memory? use memory aids
What is a strategy to address long term memory? use mnemonics
What are some strategies to address working memory? simplify tasks, provide assitive devices,
What are words and symbols grouped into categories? concept formation and categorization
What creates structure out of related concepts? schema
What describes sequence of events expected to occur? script
What are the 6 steps of problem solving? 1) Recognizing there is a problem 2) understanding the problem 3) identifying strategies or solutions to resolve the problem 4) evaluating the strategies 5) selecting & carrying out a strategy 6) evaluating the outcome
What are rules of thumb that guide decisions? heuristics
What makes decisions based on thing looking like what we expect? Representative heuristic
What makes decision based on how available things are? Availability heuristic
What starts with the anchor and then adjusts? Anchoring/adjustment heuristic
What is an awareness of what you know and what you do not know? Metacognition
adaptation adjustment of a person to fluctuating circumstances within or external to the individual; change based on challenges in the environment
coping adapting to and managing change, stress, or opportunity; action taken to deal with difficulties in a specific time
coping process information processing, emotions and behavioral response
generalized adaptation syndrome a group of common symptoms during illness characterized as representing the body's ordinary physiological reaction to unfavorable conditions, passing through the alarm reaction, resistance or adaptation, and finally exhaustion stage
allostasis the physiological changes that accompany the body's readiness activities
diathesis stress model a view that abnormal behavior is a function of series of stressors in predisposed individuals (due to hereditary, temperamental and sociocultural factors
Homeostasis the ability to maintain a favorable balance and adjust when external circumstances create abnormal circumstances
Resilence a character trait associated with the ability to endure stressful situations without suffering the physiological or psychological consequences such as illness or disease
Acute stressors any short term event or situation that induces emotional distress in a given client and goes away QUICKLY
stressor sequences A cascade of adversity, often resulting from a single event, such as a job loss or divorce
chronic intermittent stressors an agent, condition or other stimulus that persistently but irregularly causes stress to an individual
chronic permanent stressor an agent, condition or other stimulus that continuosly causes stress to an individual
behavioral strategies some type of actions to manage stress, such as confronting a person about a conflict or engaging in physical activity to manage the feelings; "dealing with stress"
Avoidance action to stay away from stress
cognitive strategies efforts to analyze the situation to fully understand the nature of the threat or challenge
cognitive restructuring (coping strategy) efforts to find and embrace the positive aspects of the situation
emotional expression (coping strategy) directing anger or humor at the situation
wish-fulfilling fantasy (coping strategy) spending time imagining an improved situation
self blame (coping strategy) refocusing attention as a part of avoidance
information seeking (coping strategy) seeking information and advice about the active coping strategies used by others
threat minimization (coping strategy) putting distressing thoughts out of one's mind as a type of denial or avoidance
What type of approaches do the psychodynamic-object relations use? writing, creative expression, conscious and unconscious influences
Who would the Behavioral Frame of Reference be most suited for? those with cognitive deficits, low motovation and children
What types of reinforcement would the Behavioral Frame of Reference use? Structured Reinforcement, Token Economies
What are some examples of cognitive behavioral interventions? psyschoeducation, skills training, coping skills and stress management, relaxation and mediation, health and wellness, interpersonal skills
3 C's of coping commitment, change and control
What are some problems that individuals with MI often experience when coping with new Dx? once they get a Dx it can cause a disturbance on self identity and how others view you
Subjective burden emotional responses of dealing with catastrophic events including feelings of grief; symbolic loss of hopes, dreams, and aspirations that were held for a loved one with a MH;"emotional roller coaster"; feelings of guilt, anger and resentment
Objective burden the challenges of dealing with the practical problems associated with MH including positive and negative symptoms; and adapting to a family members mood swings and socially inappropriate or self destructive behaviors
Environment Stress (client evaluation) events and experiences that are objectively associated with adaptation and daily life demands; "life events"
Psychological Stress (client evaluation) individual evaluation of coping abilities to meet life demands; "how we respond"
Biological Stress (client evaluation) aimed at measuring the activation of physiological systems during times of stress
What is the SRRS? Social Readjustment Rating Scale, most frequently used tools to measure stress; consist of 43 life events divided into two categories. Total Score suggest potential for developing stress related to illness; does not differentiate between + and - stressors
What is a coping assessment? a checklist to see what our coping styles are
What are some examples of coping and stress measures? interviews, stress diaries, physiological measures, observation and resilence
emotion evaluative mental state produced by neural impulse
feeling inner subjective sensations without physiological response
emotional stress a sustained, damaging emotional response and the inability to control such responses
emotional regulation effort to control emotional state
emotion dysregulation responses that are not adaptive
Emotion dysregulation is a core symptom of __________. borderline personality disorder
Impairment in ____________ is a type of emotions dysregulation that is common in substance abuse impulse control
The _____________ can influence emotional dysregulation in people with bipolar disorder. Behavorial Approach System (BAS)
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy(DBT) validates current emotional/functional state but also promotes change
emotional functions appropriate range and regulation of emotions
What is the MET? Multiple errands test
Where is the MET performed? At a shopping mall
What are the 3 functions of the Executive Functioning Performance Test? 1) to see which executive function may not be working 2) determine patient's ability to live independently 3) Determine how much assistance is necessary if they can not live independently
What is Allen's diagnostic module? a list of 24 craft projects for individuals with ACLs of 3.0-5.8
What is the routine task inventory? a list of 14 different ADLs and IADLs that are broken down.
Who is the Mini-Mental State Examination used on? older adults
What are some things assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination? orientation registration, attention, recall, language
What score indicates a cognitive impairment and needs further testing? Below 25/30
What is a quick screening for dementia patients? The Clock Drawing Test
What are the 6 key mistakes on the Clock Drawing Test? 1) wrong time 2)no hands 3) missing numbers 4) number substituition 5) repetition of # 6) refusal to do it
What is the purpose of the cognitive remediation intervention? to improve/restore specific cognitive skills
Who is integrated psychological therapy used for? persons with schizophrenia
What are the 3 components of integrated psychological therapy? cognitive differentiation (attention to task), verbal communication, and social competence
What does the Dynamic Interactional Approach focus on? functional information processing
What are the 2 ways to use Cognitive Adaption? 1) Adapting tasks and environments (scripts) 2) Cognitive adapting training
What is the difference between Apathetic Vs Disinhibited when related to Cognitive Adaption Training? Apathetic- avolition prompts and cues Disinhibited- more impulsive remove distractions
The Cognitive disabilities practice model believes that remediation [is/is not] a realistic goal. is not
It is important in the cognitive disabilities practice model to provide activities at level that the client can _______________. succeed
In ____________________ learning, mistakes are not allowed to occur. errorless
What is the focus of orientation? to alleviate disorientation
What is the focus of validation? emotional components vs fact
What are the 3 different layers of beliefs? 1) Surface 2) Intermediate 3) Deep layers
Which layer of belief is the core essence (what you feel strongest about) and is the blue print for other levels? Deep layer
When devloping beliefs, it is important to learn to _______ and ___________ beliefs. choose, evaluate
What are the 3 different layers of beliefs? 1) Surface 2) Intermediate 3) Deep layers
Which layer of belief is the core essence (what you feel strongest about) and is the blue print for other levels? Deep layer
What issue arises in beliefs when one has an eating disorder? beliefs about self image
When devloping beliefs, it is important to learn to _______ and ___________ beliefs. choose, evaluate
What issue arises in beliefs when one is depressed? belief about lack fo abilities. negative feelings about self/world/future. Uses words such as "never" and "always"
What issue arises in beliefs when one has an anxiety disorder? Beliefs about control/control issues. Especially with OCD and PTSD. Do not deal well with uncertainty. might blame self. OCD- responsible for things hapenning in a certain way
What issue arises in beliefs when one has an eating disorder? beliefs about self image
What issue arises in beliefs when one has a conduct disorder? beliefs about the intention of others. Example: belief that individuals are out to get them
What are some approaches covered under the cognitive bahavior theory umbrella? learning theory and behaviorism, social learning theory and social cognitive theory, and behaviorally oriented CBT models
What is the focus of learning theory and behaviorism? classical and operant conditioning
What is classical conditioning? systematic desensitization
What is operant conditioning? behavior modification
What does the social learning theory and social cognitive theory focus on? development of self-efficacy
What are the 4 components to ensure devlopment of good self efficacy? 1)Actual performance accomplishments 2) vicarious experience and modeling 3) verbal pursuasion 4)physiological and affectice states
The behavioral models of the bahaviorally oriented CBT indirectly affects belief via: teaching, remediating, cognitive, and behavioral tasks
Stress innoculation believes that stress impacts: beliefs, emotions, behaviors, and vice-versa
With stress innoculation, it is important to protect person from stress responses, and to _______________ on stressors and how they relate to behavior. educate
Cognitive Oriented CBT models focus on _________________ and _________________ challenging beliefs. identifying and directly
What does the ABC model focus on? A-activating event B-belief system C- consequences
Theories for motivation are______________ Internal (self-fulfilling)
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs highest level is___________ Self-actualization (realizing your potential)
What are some of the characteristics of the approach model? We engage in things we think we are good at. Things that are pleasant to do, that we can succeed at.
What characteristics does the avoidance model have? Avoid negative experiences. Avoid what we are not good at so that we do not face failure.Having a bad experience or feedback will cause avoidance.
What are the 2 separate neurological systems? BAS & BIS
What is the BAS system? Behavioral activation system. This is what drives us to get involved, set goals and achieve them. (Positive emotions, extraversion, impulsivity).
What is BIS? Behavioral inhibition system can be related to anxiety and depression. (Negative emotions, alert us to threats, dangers, or punishment)
T/F both neurological systems can be present in our lives? True both happen at different times depending on the event. However, is either become extreme then psychiatric symptoms may be present.
What is self-efficacy? It is the primary driving force to act. If you believe something will happen then it will! Belief in own capability.
What are the 4 sources to self-efficacy? Mastery, Modeling, Social persuasion, Somatic/emotional states.
What is mastery? It is the strongest, longest lasting, success experiences
What is modeling? Motivation comes from peoples similarities around us. "If they can do it so can I"
What is social persuasion? Verbal encouragement; cheer leading. Can be negative if someone always has negative feedback and put downs
What is somatic/emotional states? Physical and emotional response to an activity. It can increase or decrease the motivation to do something.
Addressing self-efficacy Culture plays a huge role; how someone was raised; positive feedback will go a lot farther. OT uses the 4 sources to promote self efficacy.
What are the 3 ways people meet goals? Personal agency (I do it myself, my way; Proxy agency (someone acting on your behalf); Collective agency (people working together.
What are the 2 examples of the self-determination theory? Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation.
What is intrinsic motivation? Our internal drive for challenge or mastery. We do are motivated to do it because it makes us feel good.
Intrinsic motivation is ____________but dependent on 3 psychological needs. Innate
What are the 3 psychological needs? Competence: enhances intrinsic motivation to act; Autonomy: personal decision and action; Relatedness: feelings of security
What is extrinsic motivation? To obtain some outcome separate from the activity Ex. Getting a reward, earning things
T/F Self-regulation of emotion affects the degree of autonomy? The more autonomy the better the performance? True
T/F The more external regulation the more autonomous? False: Less
T/F Integrated regulation is the most autonomous. True
__________self-regulation may cause procrastination. Decreased
What is the "flow" theory? It is how and why we are motivated
What are the characteristics of the flow theory? Intense focus & concentration on an activity; merging action & awareness; self-regulation of motivation; loss of self-consciousness;deep sense of control; loss of time; absense of anxiety; Ex. So engulfed in activity they lose sense of time.
What are the stages of the Transtheoretical Model? Precontemplation: Encouragement to make change; Contemplation: Strategy to change the pros/cons; Preparation; Action; Maintenance
OT is mostly involved in which stage of the Transtheoretical Model Action
What is the characteristic of MOHO? It is a dynamic system consisting of Performance, Habituation, and Volition subsystem. Change in 1 area affects all of the areas.
What does the volition sub-system consist of? Interests, values, & personal causation
How is motivation affected by someone with schizophrenia? Avolition (lack in motivation) is the core system. Increased psychotic symptoms can decrease their attention span, social withdrawal, secondary effects of depression.
ADHD Seek rewards, decreased sensitivity to reinforcers. Very excessive
Mood disorders Approach/avoidance behaviors depending on the mood; attention seeking
Substance abuse Reward seeking; seek the high as a need of reward; No regard to punishment or consequenses
Intellectual Disabilities Mastery motivation decreases as the person ages;Failure rate increases as tasks become more challenging.
What are the 2 assessment scales? BIS & BAS
What is the BIS scale? Measures 1 BIS scale; punishment sensitivity
What is the BAS scale? Measures 3 BAS scale; drive, fun-seeking, reward responsiveness
What is the goal-attaining scaling? Assesses individual progress regardless of outcome. -2 to +2 w/0 expected level.
Negative numbers have __________expected outcome? Lower
Positive numbers have ______________expected outcome? Better
On the Leisure motivation scale the __________the score the more likely the individual is to recover. Higher
T/F Leisure activities that incorporate socialization within the community appear to be most helpful. True
University of RI change assessment. Measures the readiness to change. (if they are not ready to change then it isn't going to happen)
Volitional Questionnaire & Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire from (MOHO) Looks at the influence the environment has. If there are barriers in the environment then they are not going to be as motivated.
Interventions linked to theories Exploration (identifies interests), Competency, and Achievement
Motivational Interviewing Fundamental approaches: Collaboration, Evocation(client identifies goals) Autonomy. This is for people who don't want to change but the change is imperative for their health/safety. Ex. Quit Smoking
General principles of motivational interviewing Express empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance, support self-efficacy.
What are the core cognitive distortions in cognitive therapy? emotional reasoning, jumping to conclusions, all-or-nothing thinking
The goals of cognitive therapy is to ___________________, ______________________, and ______________________ cognitive distortions. identify, reframe, and replace
When assessing beliefs in OT practice, focus on beliefs about: strengths and limitations, occupational performance, intervention, outcome, and environment
What are three assessments of beliefs in OT practice? Formal (Self Efficacy Gauge), Informal or Semi-structured (interview/OTPF), and structured task
Who interprets results of the Socratic Questioning and Guided Discovery? the client
What are 5 cognitive strategies and techniques? Socratice Questioning and Guided Discovery, Dysfunctional Thought Records, TIC TOC technique, Identifying ABCs, and Acquiring knowledge
What are some things included in the Dysfunctional Thought Records? date, situation, emotion, automatic thoughts, outcomes
The TIC TOC Technique is used to __________ and _____________ thoughts. identify and reframe.
What is the first step of the TIC TOC Technique? To identify task you are avoiding
What does TIC stand for? Task interfering cognitions (thoughts)
What does TOC stand for? Task oriented cognition
What are the ABCs of cognitive strategies and techniques? Activating event, irrational Belief, and Consequences
What is the most prevalent application of CBT in occupational therapy? Psycho-education
When using Behavioral Experiements, allow the client to _______ beliefs to see if they are true. test
What are three sensory processing disorders? sensory modulation disorder, sensory based motor disorder, and sensory discrimination disorder
What are some sensory modalities? visual system, auditory system, tacticle system, taste/smell systems, proprioceptive system, and vestibular system
What are some diagnoses of children with sensory processing issues? ADHD (sensory seekers), Autism (both sensory seekers & avoiders), Learning disabilities (seekers)
What are some diagnoses of adults with sensory processing issues? Schizophrenia (low registration), Borderline personality disorders (using self inflicted pain to bring back to reality), and mood disorders (actions will vary based on mood)
Why do individuals act out according to Ayers? Act out due to bombardment of sensory stimulation
Georgia De Gangi believes that infants/toddlers who have regulatory disorders at 3 years old will also have _______________________. devlopmental delays
What are some key compondnets of the Wilbarger Approach? sensory defensiveness, "sensory diet", and brushing protocol
Sensory Integrative theory: The framework for understanding how behaviors, coordination, and development are impacted by the integration of sensory input at the neurobiological level
Dunn's Model of Sensory processing focuses on ________ quadrants. 4
Sensory sensitivity: Low threshold, passive response. Person notices things that other does not. Heightened awareness of the environment. Highly distractable and more likely to experience discomfort in high intensity environments.
Sensation avoiding: Low threshold, active response. Creates or chooses environment that reduce sensory input. Does well in low stimulating situations. May miss important information & becomes distressed in situations that they cannot control the environment.
Low registration: High threshold, passive response. Tend to miss input that others take in. May require repetition and cues. May be slow to respond. Are highly flexible because they are not bothered by sensory strimuli. Can manage in distracting environments
Sensation seeking: High threshold, active response. Actively engage with their environment to meet their sensation needs. Change or select environments to obtain higher levels of sensory input. Easily bored or frustrated in environments that dont meet needs for sensation
What assessments are used in Dunn's Model? Sensory Profile Assessment & Highly Sensitive Person Scale
What does intervention look at changing in the Dunn's Model? changing the environment instead of person
What kind of observation is used when doing sensroy assessments in the context of occupational performance? Structured (in several different environments, can use videotape to help)
What are some developmental assessments in combonination with sensory measures? Peabody developmental motor scale (motor skills), Hawaii Early Learning Profile, and Visual Motor/Perceptual Tools
What kind of environment is used to allow for sensory exploration? Snoezelen (sensory rooms)
What are some formal assessments for sensory in the context of occupational perfomance? School Functional Assessment, Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, and Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills
What are some appropriate stimuli that we can provide as an alternative to physical restraints? Calming activities (have sensory plan in place) and orientation activities (orienting them back to the here and now)
ADA of 1990: prevented discrimination, reasonable accommodations
Exploration: includes prevocational evaluation, vocational eval, and training.
Job acquisition: getting a job
Task Group: basic job skills for any job and many life roles. Very low functioning clients. Includes attn to task, consistent rate, use of tools & material, and recognize errors/problems
Work Group: Simulation, actually produces something, may receive pay, need long term clients for consistency
Work Adjustment Programs: Goal is to reach a socially acceptable level of performance in work habits, work attitudes, and social skills
Sheltered work programs: Severe clients, usually unable to ever achieve competitive employment, highly structured, pay. Competitive employment is not an option.
Created by: kcjesusaves
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