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info 210 exam3

THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF HIGH-QUALITY INFORMATION Info is evrywhere in org; Employees must be able to obtain and analyze the diff lvls, formats, and granularities of org info to make decisions; Successfully collecting, compiling, sorting, and analyzing info can provide insight into organization perform
Transactional information Encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks
Analytical information Encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks
Timeliness an aspect of information that depends on the situation
Real-time information Immediate, up-to-date information
Real-time system Provides real-time information in response to requests
Characteristics of High-quality Information Accurate, Consistent, Complete, Unique, Timely
The four primary sources of low quality information include Customers intentionally enter bad info to protect privacy; Diff entry standards and formats; Operators enter abbreviated info by accident or to save time; Third party and external info contains inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and errors
Potential business effects resulting from low quality information Inability to accurately track customers Difficulty identifying valuable customers Inability to identify selling opportunities Marketing to nonexistent customers Difficulty tracking revenue Inability to build strong customer relationships
BENEFITS OF GOOD INFORMATION High quality information can significantly improve the chances of making a good decision Good decisions can directly impact an organization's bottom line
Database maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
Database management systems (DBMS) Allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in a relational database
Data element The smallest or basic unit of information
Data model Logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures
Metadata Provides details about data
Data dictionary Compiles all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model
Entity A person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored (The rows in a table contain entities)
Attribute (field, column) The data elements associated with an entity (The columns in each table contain the attributes)
Record A collection of related data elements
Primary key A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Foreign key A primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables
Database advantages from a business perspective Increased flexibility Increased scalability and performance Reduced information redundancy Increased information integrity (quality) Increased information security
A well-designed database should Handle changes quickly and easily Provide users with different views Have only one physical view Have multiple logical views
Physical view Deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
Logical view Focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs
Scalability Refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
Performance Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
Data redundancy The duplication of data or storing the same information in multiple places
Inconsistency one of the primary problems with redundant information
Information integrity measures the quality of information
Integrity constraint rules that help ensure the quality of information (Relational integrity constraint & Business-critical integrity constraint)
Password Provides authentication of the user
Access level Determines who has access to the different types of information
Access control Determines types of user access, such as read-only access
Database security features Password, Access level, Access control
Data-driven websites An interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database
BUSINESS BENEFITS OF DATA WAREHOUSING Data warehouses extend the transform of data into info In the 90’s execs became less concerned with D2D bus ops and more concerned with overall bus functions The data warehouse provided the ability to support decision making w/o disrupting the D2D ops
Data warehouse A logical collection of information – gathered from many different operational databases – that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
primary purpose of a data warehouse aggregate information throughout an organization into a single repository for decision-making purposes
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL) A process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse
Data mart Contains a subset of data warehouse information
Dimension A particular attribute of information
Cube Common term for the representation of multidimensional information
MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Databases contain information in a series of two-dimensional tables In a data warehouse and data mart, information is multidimensional, it contains layers of columns and rows
Information cleansing or scrubbing A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information
Data mining The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
Data mining tools use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information (Classification, Estimation, Affinity grouping, Clustering)
Structured data Data already in a database or a spreadsheet
Unstructured data Data does not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails
Text mining Analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences
Web mining Analyzes unstructured data associated with websites to identify consumer behavior and website navigation
Common forms of data-mining analysis capabilities Cluster analysis Association detection Statistical analysis
Cluster analysis A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
Association detection Reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships (Market basket analysis)
Statistical analysis Performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis (Time-series information, forecast)
forecast Predictions made on the basis of time-series information
Time-series information Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency
THE PROBLEM: DATA RICH, INFORMATION POOR Businesses face a data explosion as digital images, email in-boxes, and broadband connections doubles by 2010 The amount of data generated is doubling every year Some believe it will soon double monthly
THE SOLUTION: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE Improving the quality of business decisions has a direct impact on costs and revenue BI enables business users to receive data for analysis that is: Reliable, Consistent, Understandable, Easily manipulated
Created by: hellomandae



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