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Chapter 14 - Enterprise Computing

Technique used by engineers that allows them to interact with a product without the need to build a prototype. 3-D visualization
The application of human intelligence to computers. artificial intelligence (AI)
Measure of how often hardware is online. availability
Component of a disaster recovery plan that specifies how a company uses backup files and equipment to resume information processing. backup plan
Processing technique in which the computer collects data over time and processes all transactions later, as a group. batch processing
Single card in a blade server. blade
Complete computer server, such as a Web server or network server, packed on a single card. See also ultradense servers. blade server
Component in which blades in a blade server are held. blade server chassis
Several types of applications and technologies for acquiring, storing, analyzing, and providing access to information to help users make more sound business decisions. business intelligence (BI)
Automation that provides easy exchange of information among business applications, reduces the need for human intervention in processes, and utilizes software to automate processes wherever possible. business process automation (BPA)
Set of activities that enterprises perform to optimize their business processes, such as accounting and finance, hiring employees, and purchasing goods and services. business process management (BPM)
Approach to information technology in which a company maintains central computers supported by a central information technology department. centralized
IT executive position that reports to the CEO. chief information officer (CIO)
Collection of every action that users make as they move through a Web site. click stream
Term used to describe information systems that are more difficult to interoperate with other information systems. See also proprietary. closed
Internet service that provides computing needs to computer users. cloud computing
Separate facility that mirrors a critical site, but does not become operational until the critical site becomes unavailable. cold site
Software that aids in engineering, drafting, and design. computer-aided design (CAD)
Use of computers to test product designs. computer-aided engineering (CAE)
Use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly. computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Use of computers to integrate the many different operations of the manufacturing process. computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
An information system that is a combination of databases, software, and procedures that organizes and allows access to various forms of documents and other files, including images and multimedia content. content management system (CMS)
Management activity that involves measuring performance and, if necessary, taking corrective action. controlling
Activities that relate to the main mission of a company. core activities
Software that manages the day-to-day interactions with customers, such as telephone calls, e-mail interactions, Web interactions, and instant messaging sessions. customer interaction management (CIM)
System that manages information about customers, interactions with customers, past purchases, and interest. customer relationship management (CRM)
Centralized location for managing and housing hardware and software. data center
Term used to refer to the function of computerized transaction processing systems. data processing
Huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions. data warehouse
Approach to information technology in which departments and divisions maintain their own information systems. decentralized
Information system that helps users analyze data and make decisions. decision support system (DSS)
Report generated by a management information system that lists just transactions. detailed report
Written plan describing the steps a company would take to restore computer operations in the event of a disaster. Contains four major components: emergency plan, backup plan, recovery plan, and test plan. disaster recovery plan
Provides forecasting for inventory control, manages and tracks shipping of products, and provides information and analysis on inventory in warehouses. distribution systems
System that allows for storage and management of a company’s documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets. document management system (DMS)
Any time a computer crashes, needs repairs, or requires installation of replacement or upgrade parts. downtime
Business transaction that occurs when retailers use the Web to sell their products and services. See also e-tail. e-retail
Business transaction that occurs when retailers use the Web to sell their products and services. See also e-retail. e-tail
Set of standards that controls the transfer of business data and information among computers both within and among enterprises. EDI (electronic data interchange)
Component of a disaster recovery plan that specifies the steps to be taken immediately after a disaster strikes. emergency plan
Information system that automates and manages much of the communications between the employees and the business. employee relationship management (ERM) system
Business trend of providing nonmanagement users with access to information necessary to make decisions that previously were made by managers. empowering
Term that commonly describes a business or venture of any size. enterprise
The use of computers in networks, such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks that encompass a variety of different operating systems, protocols, and network architectures. enterprise computing
Devices geared for heavy use, maximum availability, and maximum efficiency that large organizations use to manage and store information and data. enterprise hardware
Information gathered in the ongoing operations of an enterprise-sized organization. enterprise information
Provides centralized, integrated software to help manage and coordinate the ongoing activities of the enterprise. enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Technology that allows users to perform searches across many enterprise-wide information systems and databases. enterprise search
Strategy that focuses on the availability, protection, organization, and backup of storage in a company. enterprise storage system
General purpose information systems in an enterprise that crosses the boundaries of functional units and is used by one or more functional units in an enterprise. enterprise-wide system
Out-of-the-ordinary conditions that define the normal activity or status range in an exception report. exception criteria
Report generated by a management information system that identifies data outside of a normal condition. exception report
A special type of decision support system that supports the strategic information needs of executive management. executive information system (EIS)
The highest management positions in a company, which focuses on the long-range direction of the company. executive management
Information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making. expert system
Source of data obtained from outside an enterprise, which might include interest rates, trends, or raw material pricing. external sources
Portion of a company’s network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to access parts of an enterprise’s intranet. extranet
Process of one system automatically taking the place of a failed system. failover
Technology used to connect to storage systems at data rates up to 4 Gbps. Fibre Channel
Individual operating entities in an enterprise. functional units
Technology that combines many servers and/or personal computers on a network to act as one large computer. grid computing
System that continues running and performing tasks for at least 99 percent of the time. high-availability system
Separate facility that mirrors the systems and operations of a critical site. hot site
Feature that allows components to be replaced while the rest of the system continues to perform its tasks. hot-swapping
Information system that manages one or more human resources function(s). human resources information system (HRIS)
Arranging content so that it later can be searched. indexes
Component of an expert system that contains a set of logical judgments that are applied to the knowledge base each time a user describes a situation to the expert system. inference rules
Overall technology strategy of a company. information architecture
Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that a computer requires to generate information. information system
Source of data obtained from inside an enterprise, which might include sales order, inventory records, or financial data from accounting and financial analyses. internal sources
Storage of data, information, and instructions on the Web. Internet backup
Sharing information with other information systems within an enterprise. interoperability
Component of an expert system that contains the combined subject knowledge and experiences of human experts. knowledge base
The process by which an enterprise collects, archives, indexes, and retrieves its knowledge, or resources. knowledge management (KM)
Software that assists in the task of knowledge management and captures the expertise of knowledge workers, so that their knowledge is not lost when they leave the company. knowledge management software (KMS)
Individuals whose jobs center on the collection, processing, and application of information. knowledge workers
Management activity, sometimes referred to as directing, that involves communicating instructions and authorizing others to perform the necessary work. leading
Information system that has existed within an organization for an extended length of time and is relied upon heavily. legacy system
RAID storage design that writes data on two disks at the same time to duplicate the data. See also mirroring. level 1
Information system that generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress. management information system (MIS)
Employees responsible for coordinating and controlling an organization’s resources. managers
Extension of MRP that includes software that helps in scheduling, tracking production in real time, and monitoring product quality. Manufacturing Resource Planning II (MRP II)
Type of marketing information system that stores and analyzes data gathered from demographics and surveys. market research system
Information system that serves as a central repository for the tasks of the marketing functional unit. marketing information system
Approach to information management in a manufacturing environment that uses software to help monitor and control processes related to production. Material Requirements Planning (MRP)
Detailed data in a data dictionary about the data in a database. metadata
Level of management responsible for implementing the strategic decision of executive management. middle management
RAID storage design that writes data on two disks at the same time to duplicate the data. See also level 1. mirroring
Server that is placed on a network with the sole purpose of providing storage to users and information systems attached to the network. network attached storage (NAS)
Production, clerical, and other personnel. nonmanagement employees
Information system that enables employees to perform tasks using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually. See also office information system (OIS). office automation
Information system that enables employees to perform tasks using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually. See also office automation. office information system (OIS)
Term used to refer to programs, such as those in a decision support system, that analyze data. online analytical processing (OLAP)
E-commerce activity that allows users to pay bills from their computer or mobile device, that is, transfer money electronically from their account to a payee's account. online banking
E-commerce activity that allows users to invest in stocks, options, bonds, treasuries, certificates of deposit, money markets, annuities, and mutual funds -- without using a broker. online trading
Processing technique in which the computer processes each transaction as it is entered. online transaction processing (OLTP)
Term used to describe information systems that more easily share information with other information systems. open
Decision that involves day-to-day activities within a company. operational decision
Level of management that supervises the production, clerical, and other nonmanagement employees of a company. operational management
Core activities of a business involving the creation, selling, and support of the products and services that the company produces. operations
Server that holds hundreds of optical discs that can contain programs and data. See also optical disc server. optical disc jukebox
Server that holds hundreds of optical discs that can contain programs and data. See also optical disc jukebox. optical disc server
Management activity that includes identifying and combining resources, such as money and people, so that the company can reach its goals and objectives. organizing
Practice of offloading storage management to an outside organization or online Web service. outsourcing
Server configuration that works much like a blade server. personal computer blade
Customization of portal pages to meet users’ needs. personalization
Management activity that involves establishing goals and objectives. planning
Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location. portal
Instruction or set of instructions a user follows to accomplish an activity. procedure
Term used to describe information systems that are more difficult to interoperate with other information systems. See also closed. proprietary
Software that uses statistical analysis to identify and predict product defects and problems with the company's processes. quality control software
System used by an organization to maintain or improve the quality of its products or services. quality control system
Redundant array of independent disks; group of two or more integrated hard disks that acts like a single large hard disk. RAID (redundant array of independent disks)
Agreement with another firm, where one firm provides space and sometimes equipment to the other in case of a disaster. reciprocal backup relationship
Component of a disaster recovery plan that specifies the actions to be taken to restore full information processing operations. recovery plan
Components used so that a functioning computer can take over automatically the tasks of a similar component that fails. redundant components
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files. See also data dictionary. repository
Software that equips traveling salespeople with the electronic tools they need to be more productive. sales force automation (SFA)
Measure of how well computer hardware, software, or an information system can grow to meeting increasing performance demands. scalability
Software that enables an IT department to limit access to sensitive information. security software
Capability to logically divide a physical server into many virtual servers. server virtualization
Architecture that enterprises use so that information systems provide services to other information systems in a well-defined manner over a network. service-oriented architecture (SOA)
Business that is smaller in size than an enterprise and typically does not have an international presence. small- and medium-sized business (SMB)
Network attached storage server. storage appliance
High-speed network with the sole purpose of providing storage to other servers to which it is attached. storage area network (SAN)
Capability to create a single logical storage device from many physical storage devices. storage virtualization
Decisions that center on a company’s overall goals and objectives. strategic decisions
RAID storage technique that splits data, instructions, and information across multiple disks in the array. striping
Report generated by a management information system that consolidates data usually with totals, tables, or graphs, so that managers can review it quickly and easily. summary report
Activities relating to running a business. supporting activities
Short-range decisions that apply specific programs and plans necessary to meet stated objectives. tactical decisions
Separate cabinet for larger computers in which tape cartridges are mounted. tape library
Employee who guides design, development, and maintenance tasks; serves as interface between programmer/developer and management. technical lead
Component of a disaster recovery plan that contains information for simulating various levels of disasters and recording an organization’s ability to recover. test plan
Small terminal-like computer that mostly relies on a server for data storage and processing. thin client
Individual business activity. transaction
Information system that captures and processes data from day-to-day business activities. transaction processing system (TPS)
Complete computer server, such as a Web server or network server, packed on a single card. See also blade servers. ultradense server
Measurement of availability. uptime
Network that provides a mobile user with a secure connection to a company network server, as if the user has a private line. virtual private network (VPN)
Practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers and storage devices. virtualization
Secure connection created over the Internet between the user’s computer and the company’s network. VPN tunnel
Process of collecting data from the Internet as a source for a data warehouse. Web farming
Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B (business-to-business) interactions over the Internet. Web services
Software that collects data designed to help organizations make informed decisions regarding their Web presence. Web site management programs
Defined process that identifies the specific set of steps involved in completing a particular project or business process. workflow
Program that assists in the management and tracking of all the activities in a business process from start to finish. workflow application
Created by: sheidkamp