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DC1-13

Chapter 13 - Programming Languages and Program Development

DefinitionTerm
Microsoft’s set of technologies that allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as stand-alone computers and mobile devices. .NET
Fourth-generation language; nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database. 4GL
Set of object-oriented technologies by Microsoft that allows components on a network to communicate with one another. Active X
Small program that runs on a client computer, instead of the server. ActiveX control
Programming language derived from Pascal, developed by the U.S. Department of Defense, named after Augusta Ada Lovelace Byron, thought to be the first female computer programmer. Ada
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Method of creating interactive Web applications designed to provide immediate response to user requests. Ajax
ALGOrithmic Language. The first structured procedural programming language. ALGOL
Set of steps. algorithm
Flowchart symbol that explains or clarifies logic in a solution algorithm. See also comment symbol. annotation symbol
Application programming interface; collection of tools that programmers use to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system. API
A Programming Language. Scientific language designed to manipulate tables of numbers. APL
Interpreted program that runs on a client, but is compiled. applet
Program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality. application generator
File that does not contain any formatting, that is, no graphics, italics, bold, underlining, styles, bullets, shading, color, or any other type of graphical format. ASCII file
Web application framework that provides the tools necessary for the creation of dynamic Web sites. ASP.NET
Program used by programmers to convert assembly language source program into machine language. assembler
Programming language in which a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes. assembly language
XML application that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers. ATOM
Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Programming language developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz as a simple, interactive problem-solving language. BASIC
Program that has most or all of its features and functionality implemented. beta
Program errors. bugs
Resulting object code in a Java program. bytecode
Programming language developed in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories used for business and scientific applications. C
Object-oriented programming language based on C++ developed primarily by Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft. C#
Object-oriented programming language developed at Bell Laboratories that is an extension of the C programming language. C++
Contains formats for how a particular object should be displayed in a Web browser. cascading style sheet (CSS)
Type of selection control structure that can yield one of three or more possibilities. case control structure
Communications standard that defines how a Web server communicates with outside sources. CGI (common gateway interface)
Program that manages sending and receiving across a CGI. CGI script
Common Language Runtime; environment that enables programmers to develop .NET programs using a variety of languages. CLR
COmmon Business-Oriented Language. Programming language designed for business applications, which evolved out of a joint effort between the United States government, businesses, and major universities in the early 1960s. COBOL
Programming term meaning to write. code
Process of programmers, quality control testers, and/or peers reviewing code in order to locate and fix errors so that the final programs work correctly. code review
Prewritten code and templates associated with common programming tasks. code snippets
Translating a solution algorithm into a programming language and then typing the programming language code into the computer. coding
Flowchart symbol that explains or clarifies logic in a solution algorithm. See also annotation symbol. comment symbol
Internal documentation contained in a program. comments
Programming language designed for business applications, which evolved out of a joint effort between the United States government, businesses, and major universities in the early 1960s. See also COBOL. COmmon Business-Oriented Language
Separate program that converts an entire source program into machine language before executing it. compiler
Series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks computer program
Used during program design, a depiction of the logical order of program instructions. See also control structure. construct
Used during program design, a depiction of the logical order of program instructions. See also construct. control structure
Web site element that tracks the number of visitors to a Web site. counter
Any program instructions that a program never executes. dead code
Utility that assists programmers with identifying syntax errors and finding logic errors. See also debugger. debug utility
Utility that assists programmers with identifying syntax errors and finding logic errors. See also debug utility. debugger
Process of locating and correcting syntax and logic errors in a program. debugging
Powerful visual programming tool that is ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web application development. Delphi
Tools such as pseudocode and program flowcharts that help programmers document a solution algorithm. design tools
Validation technique in which programmers use test data to step through a program’s logic. desk check
Person who creates and modifies computer programs. See also programmer. developer
Multimedia authoring program with powerful features that allow programmers to create highly interactive multimedia applications. Director
Type of repetition control structure similar to a do-while control structure, except it tests the condition at the end of the loop and continues looping until the condition is true. do-until control structure
Type of repetition control structure that repeats one or more times as long as a condition is true. do-while control structure
Format that defines every item on a Web page as an object, allowing developers to change properties, such as color or size, of any or all of the objects on the Web page document object model (DOM)
Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that allows Web developers to create, maintain, and manage professional Web sites. Dreamweaver
Type of HTML that allows Web developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in a Web page. dynamic HTML (DHTML)
Open source, advanced development environment that works with a variety of programs including Java and C++. Eclipse
HTML words, abbreviations, and symbols that specify links to other documents and indicate how a Web page is displayed when viewed on the Web. See also tags. elements
Concept of packaging data and procedures into a single object. encapsulation
An action to which a program responds. event
Program that checks for and responds to events. event-driven program
Process of a computer carrying out the instructions in a program. execute
Microsoft's Web page authoring program that enables Web developers to create professional, dynamic, interactive Web sites. Expression Web
Strategy that proposed that programmers should immediately begin coding and testing solutions as soon as requirements are defined. extreme programming (XP)
Programming language included with Visual Studio 2010 that combines the benefits of an object-oriented language with the benefits of a functional language. F#
Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that enables Web developers to combine interactive content with text, graphics, audio, and video. Flash
Graphically shows the logic in a solution algorithm. See also program flowchart. flowchart
Software used by programmers to help develop flowcharts. flowcharting software
Window on the screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database. See also data entry form. form
Programming language similar to C, used for small computerized devices. Forth
FORmula TRANslator. One of the first high-level programming languages used for scientific applications. FORTRAN
Nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database. fourth-generation language
Programming language whose natural programming structure is useful in mathematical programs. functional language
Internal documentation, usually at the top of a program, that explains the program’s purpose and identifies the program name, its author, and date written. global comments
Structured design tool that shows program modules graphically. See also structure chart. hierarchy chart
Programming language in which each language instruction typically equates to multiple machine instructions. high-level language
Hypertext Markup Language; special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web. HTML
Object-oriented programming language developed by Apple to manipulate cards that can contain text, graphics, and sound. HyperTalk
Special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web. Hypertext Markup Language
Includes program development tools for building graphical user interfaces, an editor for entering program code, a compiler and/or interpreter, and a debugger. IDE (integrated development environment)
Type of selection control structure that yields only one of two possibilities: true or false. if-then-else control structure
Graphical image that points to one or more Web addresses. image map
Process of generating or writing code that translates a program design into a program and, if necessary, creating the user interface. implementation
Documentation that appears throughout the body of the program that explains the purpose of the code statements within the program. internal comments
Program used to convert a source program into machine language and then executes the machine language instructions. interpreter
Chart that identifies a program’s inputs, its outputs, and the processing steps required to transform the inputs into the outputs. IPO chart
Object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java
Set of technologies built on Sun's Java EE that allows programmers to develop and deploy Web services for a company, often used in Web 2.0 environments. Java EE (Java Platform, Enterprise Edition)
Java platform used to create programs for smart phones and other mobile devices. Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME)
Java platform developed by Sun Microsystems to create stand-alone programs for desktop computers and servers. Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE)
Interpreted language that allows a programmer to add dynamic content and interactive elements to a Web page. JavaScript
Program that converts bytecode into machine-dependent code that is executed immediately. just-in-time (JIT) compiler
Command words used in programming. keywords (programming language)
LISt Processing. Programming language used for artificial intelligence applications. LISP
Flaw in program design that causes inaccurate results. logic error
An educational tool used to teach programming and problem-solving to children. LOGO
Type of control structure that enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met. See also repetition control structure. loop
Programming language that is machine dependent. low-level language
The only language a computer directly recognizes, using a series of binary digits or a combination of numbers and letters that represent binary digits. machine language
Programming language that runs on only one particular type of computer. machine-dependent language
Programming language that can run on many different types of computers and operating systems. machine-independent language
Series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task. macro (application program)
Capability of assembly language that generates many machine language instructions for a single assembly language instruction. macro (assembly language)
Program development tool that records all actions until it is turned off. macro recorder
Main function of a program. See also main routine. main module
Main function of a program. See also main module. main routine
Act of correcting errors or adding enhancements to an existing program. maintaining
Application generator feature that enables users to create a menu for the application options. menu generator
Resulting object code compiled by a .NET-compatible language. Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL)
Successor to Pascal programming language used for developing systems software. Modula-2
Smaller sections into which a main routine is broken down by a programmer during structured design. See also subroutines. modules
Event that occurs when text, a graphic, or other object changes as the user moves the mouse pointer over an object on the screen. See also mouseover. mouse rollover
Event that occurs when text, a graphic, or other object changes as the user moves the mouse pointer over an object on the screen. See also mouse rollover. mouseover
Software that allows users to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and animation in an interactive application and that often is used for computer-based training and Web-based presentations. multimedia authoring software
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes English-like instructions or interacts with a graphical environment to retrieve data from files or a database. nonprocedural language
Database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data. object
Machine language version of a program that results from compiling a 3GL source program. See also object program. object code
Machine language version of a program that results from compiling a 3GL source program. See also object code. object program
Design approach in which a programmer packages the data and program (or procedure) into a single unit, an object. object-oriented (OO) design
Programming language used to implement an object-oriented design. object-oriented programming (OOP) language
Term that refers to a language anyone can use without purchasing a license. open language
Programming language developed to teach students structured programming concepts, named in honor of Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician who developed one of the earliest calculating machines. Pascal
Practical Extraction and Report Language; scripting language developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural language similar to C and C++. Perl
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor; free, open source scripting language. PHP
Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching; programming language used to write computer-aided instruction programs. PILOT
Programming Language One; business and scientific programming language that combines many features of FORTRAN and COBOL. PL/I
Process used in a do-until control structure that tests a condition at the end of the loop. posttest
Powerful program development RAD tool developed by Sybase that is best suited for Web-based, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications. PowerBuilder
Scripting language developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural language similar to C and C++. Practical Extraction and Report Language
Process used in a do-while control structure that tests a condition at the beginning of the loop. pretest
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions. See also third-generation language (3GL). procedural language
Web site element that collects data from site visitors, who fill in blank fields and then click a button that sends the information. Often simply called a form. processing form
Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs. program development
Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs, consisting of six steps: (1) analyze requirements, (2) design solution, (3) validate design, (4) implement design, (5) test solution, and (6) document solution. program development life cycle (PDLC)
Program that provides a user-friendly environment for building programs. program development tool
Graphically shows the logic in a solution algorithm. See also flowchart. program flowchart
Graphical or written description of the step-by-step procedures to solve a problem. See also solution algorithm. program logic
Person who creates and modifies computer programs. See also developer. programmer
Set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer to communicate instructions to a computer. programming language
A group of programmers that may develop programs during the program development cycle. programming team
PROgramming LOGic. Programming language used for development of artificial intelligence applications. Prolog
Design tool that uses a condensed form of English to convey program logic. pseudocode
Rapid application development; method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until an entire program is completed. RAD
Ruby on Rails; open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites. See also Ruby; RoR; Ruby on Rails. Rails
Method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until an entire program is completed. rapid application development
Type of control structure that enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met. See also loop. repetition control structure
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report. See also report generator. report writer
Restructured Extended Executor. Procedural interpreted scripting language for both professional programmers and nontechnical users. Restructured Extended Executor
Restructured Extended Executor. Procedural interpreted scripting language for both professional programmers and nontechnical users. Rexx
Ruby on Rails; open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites. See also Ruby; Rails; Ruby on Rails. RoR
Report Program Generator; programming language used to assist businesses in generating reports and to access/update data in databases. RPG
Really Simple Syndication; specification that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers. RSS 2.0
Ruby on Rails. Open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites. See also RoR; Rails; Ruby on Rails. Ruby
Open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites. See also Ruby; Rails; RoR. Ruby on Rails
Program error or event that causes the program to stop running. run-time error
Interpreted program that runs on a client. script
Interpreted language that typically is easy to learn and use. scripting language
Type of control structure that tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition. selection control structure
Type of control structure that shows one or more actions following each other in order. sequence control structure
Applet that runs on a server. servlet
Web page authoring program that is part of the Microsoft Office and SharePoint families of products. SharePoint Designer
Object-oriented programming language. Smalltalk
Graphical or written description of the step-by-step procedures to solve a problem. See also program logic. solution algorithm
Program that contains the language instructions, or code, to be converted to machine language. source program
Query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data in a relational DBMS. SQL
Structured design tool that shows program modules graphically. See also hierarchy chart. structure chart
Program design approach in which a programmer typically begins with a general design and moves toward a more detailed design. See also top-down design. structured design
Contains descriptions of a document’s characteristics. style sheet
Smaller sections into which a main routine is broken down by a programmer during structured design. See also modules. subroutines
Meaningful name used with assembly languages that identifies a storage location. symbolic address
Meaningful abbreviations used with an assembly language. symbolic instruction codes
Set of grammar and rules that specifies how to write instructions for a solution algorithm. syntax
Program error that occurs when the code violates the syntax, or grammar, of the programming language. syntax error
HTML words, abbreviations, and symbols that specify links to other documents and indicate how a Web page is displayed when viewed on the Web. See also elements. tags
Tool Command Language; interpreted scripting language maintained by Sun Microsystems Laboratories. Tcl
Sample data that mimics real data a program will process once it is in production. test data
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions. See also procedural language. third-generation language (3GL)
See Tcl. Tool Command Language
Multimedia authoring program with a graphical user interface that uses an object-oriented approach, so that programmers can design multimedia applications using basic objects. ToolBook
Program design approach in which a programmer typically begins with a general design and moves toward a more detailed design. See also structured design. top-down design
Check for accuracy. validate
Visual Basic, Scripting Edition; subset of the Visual Basic language that allows programmers to add intelligence and interactivity to Web pages. VBScript
Programming language that allows programmers easily to build complex task-oriented object-based programs. Visual Basic
Programming language that can work with Visual Studio Tools for Office or a similar language as their macro programming language. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)
Subset of the Visual Basic language that allows programmers to add intelligence and interactivity to Web pages. Visual Basic, Scripting Edition
Programming language that combines programming elements of C++ with an easier, rapid development environment. Visual C#
Programming language based on C++. Visual C++
Graphical interface in a visual programming language that allows programmers to drag and drop objects to develop programs. visual programming environment (VPE)
Programming language that uses a visual or graphical interface for creating all source code. visual programming language
Suite of program development tools from Microsoft that assists programmers in building programs for Windows, Windows Mobile, or operating systems that support Microsoft’s .NET framework. Visual Studio
A set of tools integrated in Visual Studio that enables developers to create programs that work with Microsoft's Office suite, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Project. Visual Studio Tools for Office (VSTO)
Designers of Web pages. Web developers
Software used to create Web pages that include graphical images, video, audio, animation, and other special effects with interactive content. Web page authoring software
Wireless markup language; subset of XML that allows Web developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers. WML
Extensible HTML; markup language that enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers in smart phones and other mobile devices, as well as on desktop and notebook computers. XHTML
Extensible Markup Language; format for sharing data that allows Web developers to create customized tags, as well as use predefined tags, used for developing a single Web site whose content can be formatted to display appropriately on various devices. XML
Extensible Stylesheet Language; language for creating a style sheet that describes how to present the data described in an XML document on a Web page. XSL
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation; extension of XSL that creates styles sheets that describe how to transform XML documents into other types of documents. XSLT
Created by: sheidkamp