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DC1-12

Chapter 12 - Information System Development

DefinitionTerm
Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new system on a certain date. See also direct conversion. abrupt cutover
Test performed by end-users during the program development cycle that checks the new system to ensure that it works with actual data. acceptance test
User or other entity such as a program represented in a use case diagram. actor
Operation, support, and security phase process of including new features or capabilities in an information system. adaptive maintenance
Step in the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: (1) conduct a preliminary investigation, and (2) perform detailed analysis. analysis phase
Each data element in an object. See also property. attribute
Test that measures the performance of hardware or software. benchmark test
Skill required for project leaders so they can recognize when a change in a project has occurred, take actions to react to the change, and plan for opportunities because of the change. change management
Employee responsible for physical security of an organization’s property and people; in charge of security computing resources. chief security officer (CSO)
Analysis and design tool in the UML that graphically shows classes and subclasses in a system. class diagram
Written summary of all the safeguards that are in place to protect an organization’s information assets. computer security plan
Software tools designed to support one or more activities of the system development cycle, typically including diagrams to support both process and object modeling. computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Top level DFD that identifies only major processes. context diagram
Operation, support, and security phase process of diagnosing and correcting errors in an information system. corrective maintenance
Measure of whether lifetime benefits of a proposed information system will be greater than its lifetime costs. See also economic feasibility. cost/benefit feasibility
Software that performs functions specific to a business or industry, developed by a user or at a user’s request. custom software
Converting existing manual and computer files so that a new computer system can use them. data conversion
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files. See also repository. data dictionary
Element in a DFD, indicated by a line with an arrow, that shows the input or output of data or information into or out from a process. data flow
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the flow of data in a system. data flow diagram
Rules and standards that define how a database organizes data. data model
Element in a DFD, indicated by a rectangle with no sides, that is a holding place for data and information. data store
Table that lists a variety of conditions and the actions that correspond to each condition. decision table
Graphic representation showing a variety of conditions and the actions that correspond to each condition. decision tree
Any tangible item such as a chart, diagram, report, or program file. deliverable
Phase of the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: (1) if necessary, acquire hardware and software and (2) develop all of the details of the new or modified information system. design phase
Activity in the system development cycle that involves three major activities: (1) study how the current system works; (2) determine the users’ wants, needs, and requirements; and (3) recommend a solution. See also logical design. detailed analysis
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the flow of data in a system. DFD
Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new system on a certain date. See also abrupt cutover. direct conversion
Collection and summarization of data and information. documentation
Publication available on the Web. See also electronic magazine. e-zine
Measure of whether lifetime benefits of a proposed information system will be greater than its lifetime costs. See also cost/benefit feasibility. economic feasibility
Publication available on the Web. See also e-zine. electronic magazine
Object in a system that has data. entity
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the connections among entities in a system. entity-relationship diagram
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the connections among entities in a system. ERD
Team-driven project management approach in which a project leader is more of a participant and facilitator than a manager during the project. extreme project management
Measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the company. feasibility
Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides whether it is worth pursuing. See also preliminary investigation. feasibility study
Lengthy, structured, group meetings in which users and IT professionals work together to design or develop an application. See also joint application design (JAD). focus groups
Bar chart developed by Henry L. Gantt that uses horizontal bars to show project phases or activities. Gantt chart
Packaged software that meets the needs of many different types of organizations. horizontal market software
Integrated case products. Also called a CASE workbench. I-CASE
Phase of the system development cycle during which the new or modified system is constructed, or built, and then delivered to the users. implementation phase
Collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information. information system (IS)
Concept of lower levels inheriting methods and attributes of higher levels in a class diagram. inheritance
Formal review of any system development deliverable. inspection
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies an application works with other applications. integration test
Organization that provides assistance via the telephone or the Web to organizations and individuals that need help with computer security plans. International Computer Security Association (ICSA) Labs
Company that provides Web hosting services that include managing shopping carts, inventory, and credit card processing. Internet solutions provider
Employee, typically hired based on computer expertise, who provides computer services to his or her clients. IT consultant
Lengthy, structured, group meetings in which users and IT professionals work together to design or develop an application. See also focus groups. joint-application design (JAD)
Technical chart that contains programming-like notations for data items. layout chart
Activity in the system development cycle that involves three major activities: (1) study how the current system works; (2) determine the users’ wants, needs, and requirements; and (3) recommend a solution. See also detailed analysis. logical design
Procedure in an object that contains the activities that read or manipulate the data. See also operation. method
Sample of the input or output that contains actual data. mockup
Systems analyst who acts as leader during a JAD session. moderator
Database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data. object
Analysis and design technique that combines data with the processes that act on that data into a single unit, called an object. See also object-oriented (OO) analysis and design. object modeling
Analysis and design technique that combines data with the processes that act on that data into a single unit, called an object. See also object modeling. object-oriented (OO) analysis and design
Procedure in an object that contains the activities that read or manipulate the data. See also method. operation
Phase of the system development cycle that consists of three major activities: (1) perform maintenance activities, (2) monitor system performance, and (3) assess system security. operation, support, and security phase
Measure of how well a proposed information system will work. operational feasibility
Having a source outside a company develop software for the company. Some companies outsource just the software development aspect of their IT operation, while others outsource more or all of their IT operation. outsource
Mass-produced, copyrighted, prewritten software available for purchase. packaged software
Conversion strategy where the old system runs alongside the new system for a specified time. parallel conversion
Operation, support, and security phase process of making an information system more efficient and reliable. perfective maintenance
Operation, support, and security phase activity that determines whether a system is inefficient or unstable at any point. performance monitoring
Program Evaluation and Review Technique chart; systems analysis and design tool developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to analyze the time required to complete a task and identify the minimum time required for an entire project. PERT chart
Conversion strategy used by larger systems with multiple sites where each location converts at a separate time. phased conversion
Categories into which system development activities are grouped: (1) planning phase, (2) analysis phase, (3) design phase, (4) implementation phase, and (5) support phase. phases
Detailed design that specifies hardware and software – the physical components required – for automated procedures. See also detailed design. physical design
Conversion strategy where only one location in an organization uses a new system – so that it can be tested. pilot conversion
Step in the system development cycle that begins when a steering committee receives a project request. planning phase
Operation, support, and security phase activity that involves holding a meeting to discover whether an information system is performing according to users’ expectations. post-implementation system review
Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides whether it is worth pursuing. See also feasibility study. preliminary investigation
Element in a DFD, indicated by a circle, that transforms an input data flow into an output data flow. process
Analysis and design technique that describes processes that transform inputs into outputs. See also structured analysis and design. process modeling
Part of the implementation phase of the system development cycle that follows six steps: (1) analyze the requirements, (2) design the solution, (3) validate the design, (4) implement the design, (5) test the solution, and (6) document the solution. program development life cycle
Item prepared during program design that identifies the required programs and the relationship among each program, as well as the input, output, and database specifications. program specification package
Record that contains all the documentation and deliverables of a project. See also repository. project dictionary
Member of a project team who manages and controls the budget and schedule of the project. project leader
Process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during the system development cycle. project management
Software that assists in the planning, scheduling, and controlling of development projects. project management software
Member of a project team who controls the activities during system development. project manager
Record that contains all documentation for a single project. project notebook
Record of project elements, including goal, objectives, and expectations of the project; required activities; time estimates for each activity; cost estimates for each activity; order of activities; and activities that can take place at the same time. project plan
Written, formal request for a new or modified system. See also request for system services. project request
Group of people that consists of users, the systems analyst, and other IT professionals. project team
Working model of a proposed system. See also prototype. proof of concept
Each data element in an object. See also attribute. property
Working model of a proposed system. See also proof of concept. prototype
Popular methodology that uses the UML. Rational Unified Process (RUP)
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files. See also data dictionary. repository
Less formal document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle that uses a standard form to request information about a product or service. request for information (RFI)
Document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle where the vendor selects the product(s) that meets specified requirements and then quotes the price(s). request for proposal (RFP)
Document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle that identifies required products. request for quotation (RFQ)
Written, formal request for a new or modified system. See also project request. request for system services
Measure of whether established deadlines for a project are reasonable. schedule feasibility
The goal, required activities, time estimates for each activity, cost estimates for each activity, order of activities, and activities that can take place at the same time during system development. scope
Problem that occurs when one activity has led to another that was not originally planned, thereby causing the project to grow. scope creep
System development team member who records facts and action items assigned during a JAD session. scribe
Element in a DFD, indicated by a square, that identifies an entity outside the scope of a system. source
Sets of rules and procedures a company expects employees to accept and follow. standards
Decision-making body in a company. steering committee
Analysis and design technique that describes processes that transform inputs into outputs. See also process modeling structured analysis and design
Style of writing that describes the steps in a process; used to enter items in a project dictionary. structured English
Lower levels in a class diagram that inherit the methods and attributes of the objects in its higher-level class. subclasses
Set of components that interact to achieve a common goal. system
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. See also Systems analyst. system developer
Set of activities used to build an information system, including planning, analysis, design, implementation, and support. system development
Collection of phases in system development. system development life cycle (SDLC)
Document that assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution and then recommends the most feasible solution for a project. system proposal
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. See also system developer. systems analyst
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. See also systems analyst. systems developer
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies all programs in an application work together properly. systems test
Measure of whether an organization has or can obtain the hardware, software, and people needed to deliver and then support a proposed information system. technical feasibility
Magazine written for a specific business or industry. trade publication
Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in a system. training
Complete systems offered by value-added resellers. turnkey solution
Unified Modeling Language; graphical tool that enables systems analysts to document a system, which has been adopted as a standard notation for object modeling and development. UML
Graphical tool that enables systems analysts to document a system, which has been adopted as a standard notation for object modeling and development. Unified Modeling Language
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies each individual program or object works by itself. unit test
UML tool that graphically shows how actors interact with the information system. use case
Analysis and design tool in the UML that graphically shows how actors interact with the information system. use case diagram
Anyone for whom the system is being built. users
Company that purchases products from manufacturers and then resells these products to the public – offering additional services with the product. value-added reseller (VAR)
Packaged software specifically designed for a particular business or industry. vertical market software
Created by: sheidkamp