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DC1-11

Chapter 11 - Computer Security and Safety, Ethics, and Privacy

DefinitionTerm
Higher-level Web browser encryption protection level. 1024-bit encryption
Higher-level Web browser encryption protection level. 128-bit encryption
Web browser encryption protection level. 40-bit encryption
Sometimes called WPA2, a network standard developed by IEEE with enhanced security for wireless communications. 802.11i
Security measure that defines who can access a computer, when they can access it, and what actions they can take while accessing the computer. access control
Intrusion technique in which an individual attempts to detect wireless networks via their notebook computer while driving a vehicle through areas they suspect have a wireless network. See also war driving. access point mapping
Program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on Web pages, e-mail, or other Internet services. adware
Program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user’s inbox. anti-spam program
Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files. antivirus program
Type of encryption that uses two encryption keys: a public key and a private key. See also public key encryption. asymmetric key encryption
Computer file that records both successful and unsuccessful access attempts. audit trail
Access control that verifies an individual is the person he or she claims to be. authentication
Program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a program, computer, or network. back door
To make a copy of a file. back up
Duplicate or copy of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed. backup
Device that authenticates a person’s identity by translating a personal characteristic, such as a fingerprint, into a digital code that then is compared with a digital code stored in a computer verifying a physical or behavioral characteristic. biometric device
Payment method where the customer's fingerprint is read by a fingerprint scanner that is linked to a payment method such as a checking account or credit card. biometric payment
A complete power failure. blackout
Program that performs a repetitive task on a network. bot
Group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the Internet that are used as part of a network that attacks other networks, usually for nefarious purposes. See also zombie army. botnet
A prolonged undervoltage. brownout
Organization formed by a number of major software companies to promote a better understanding of software piracy problems and, if necessary, to take legal action. Business Software Alliance (BSA)
Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart; program used by some Web sites to provide further protection for a user's password by verifying that user input is not computer generated. CAPTCHA
Inflammation of the nerve that connects the forearm to the palm of the wrist. carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Federally funded Internet security research and development center. CERT/CC
Authorized person or company that issues and verifies digital certificates. certificate authority (CA)
Term used in three-generation backups to refer to the most recent copy of the file. child
Encrypted (scrambled) data. ciphertext
Scam in which an object that can be clicked on a Web site, such as a button, image, or link, contains a malicious program. clickjacking
Written guidelines that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical. code of conduct
Growing health problem that occurs when the computer consumes someone’s entire social life. computer addiction
Any illegal act involving a computer. computer crime
Federally funded Internet security research and development center. See also CERT/CC. Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center
Moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems. computer ethics
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks. See also cyberforensics, digital forensics, or network forensics. computer forensics
Any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability. computer security risk
Eyestrain due to prolonged computer usage. computer vision syndrome
Process of restricting access to certain material on the Web. content filtering
Small text file that a Web server stores on a computer. cookie
Exclusive rights given to authors and artists to duplicate, publish, and sell their materials. copyright
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally with the intent of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action. cracker
Software used by cybercriminals. crimeware
Eyestrain due to prolonged computer usage. CVS
Online or Internet-based illegal acts. cybercrime
Someone who uses e-mail as a vehicle for extortion. cyberextortionist
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks. See also computer forensics, digital forensics, or network forensics. cyberforensics
Someone who uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons. cyberterrorist
Computer or network attack whose goal ranges from disabling a government's computer network to crippling a country. cyberwarfare
Set of steps that can convert readable plaintext into unreadable ciphertext. See also encryption algorithm. cypher
More devastating type of denial of service attack in which a zombie army is used to attack multiple computer networks. DDoS (distributed DoS) attack
Process of deciphering encrypted data into a readable form. decrypt
Assault on a computer or network whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail. See also DoS attack. denial of service attack
A notice that guarantees a user or a Web site is legitimate. digital certificate
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks. See also computer forensics, cyberforensics, or network forensics. digital forensics
Strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of movies, music, and other digital content. digital rights management (DRM)
Encrypted code that a person, Web site, or organization attaches to an electronic message to verify the identity of the message sender. digital signature
Assault on a computer or network whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail. See also denial of service attack. DoS attack
Strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of movies, music, and other digital content. See also digital rights management. DRM
Service that blocks e-mail messages from designated sources. e-mail filtering
Spoofing that occurs when the sender's address or other components of the e-mail header are altered so that it appears the e-mail originated from a different sender. e-mail spoofing
The use of computers to observe, record, and review an employee’s use of a computer, including communications such as e-mail messages, keyboard activity (used to measure productivity), and Web sites visited. employee monitoring
Process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access. encryption
Set of steps that can convert readable plaintext into unreadable ciphertext. See also cypher. encryption algorithm
Set of characters that the originator of the encrypted data uses to encrypt the plaintext and the recipient of the data uses to decrypt the ciphertext. encryption key
License agreement included with software purchased by individual users. See also single-user license agreement. end-user license agreement (EULA)
Program developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help reduce the amount of electricity used by computers and related devices. ENERGY STAR program
The science of incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the workplace. ergonomics
1970 law that limits the rights of others viewing a credit report to only those with a legitimate business need. Fair Credit Reporting Act
Computer that has duplicate components so that it can continue to operate when one of its main components fail. fault-tolerant computer
Hardware and/or software that protects a network’s resources from intrusion by users on another network such as the Internet. firewall
Backup procedure that copies all program and data files in the computer. Also called archival backup. full backup
Term used in three-generation backups to refer to the oldest copy of a file. grandparent
Computer usage that reduces the electricity and environmental waste involved in using a computer. green computing
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally. hacker
The act of stealing computer equipment. hardware theft
The act of defacing or destroying computer equipment. hardware vandalism
Mathematical formula that generates a code from the contents of an electronic message. hash
Vulnerable computer that is set up to entice an intruder to break into it in order to allow a company to learn how intruders are exploiting its network. honeypot
Access control that verifies an individual is a valid user. identification
Right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them. information privacy
Computer security risk that occurs when someone steals personal or confidential information. information theft
Capability of an antivirus program to record information such as file size and file creation date in a separate file in order to detect viruses. inoculate
Unique and original works such as ideas, inventions, art, writings, processes, company and product names, and logos. intellectual property (IP)
Rights to which creators are entitled for their work. intellectual property rights
Organization that developed a rating system in order to filter content on the Web. Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA)
Program that automatically analyzes all network traffic, assesses system vulnerabilities, identifies any unauthorized intrusions, and notifies network administrators of suspicious behavior patterns or system breaches. intrusion detection software
Spoofing technique where an intruder computer fools a network into believing its IP address is associated with a trusted source. IP spoofing
Unit of energy a surge protection device can absorb before it can be damaged. Joule
Short for key generator; program that creates software registration numbers and sometimes activation codes used for software theft. keygen
An agreement issued by a software manufacturer that gives the user the right to use the software. license agreement
Instructions saved in software such as a word processor or spreadsheet program. macros
Programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter a computer’s operations. malicious software
Short for malicious software; programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter a computer’s operations. malware
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks. See also computer forensics, cyberforensics, or digital forensics. network forensics
Electrical disturbance that can degrade communications. noise
Type of UPS device that switches to battery power when a problem occurs in the power line. See also standby UPS. offline UPS
Location separate from a computer site. offsite
Web site that evaluates a computer to check for Internet and e-mail vulnerabilities. online security service
Type of UPS device that always runs off a battery, which provides continuous protection. online UPS
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the incoming electrical power increases significantly above the normal 120 volts. See also power surge. overvoltage
Term used in three-generation backups to refer to the second oldest copy of the file. parent
Private combination of words, often containing mixed capitalization and punctuation, associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources. passphrase
Private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources. password
Destructive event or prank a malicious-logic program is intended to deliver. payload
Utility program that detects and protects a personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions. personal firewall
Numeric password, either assigned by a company or selected by a user. personal identification number (PIN)
Scam, similar to phishing, where a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and financial information, except they do so via spoofing. pharming
Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information. phishing
Program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites. phishing filter
Unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted material. piracy
Unencrypted, readable data. plaintext
Any item that a user must carry to gain access to a computer or computer facility. possessed object
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the incoming electrical power increases significantly above the normal 120 volts. See also overvoltage. power surge
Ratio that measures how much power enters a computer facility, or data center, against the amount of power required to run the computers. power usage effectiveness (PUE)
Popular e-mail encryption program that is free for personal, noncommercial use. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
Type of encryption where both the originator and the recipient use the same secret key to encrypt and decrypt the data. See also symmetric key encryption. private key encryption
Process that attempts to prevent software piracy by requiring users to provide a software product’s 25-character identification number in order to receive an installation identification number. product activation
Server outside a company’s network that controls which communications pass into the company’s network. proxy server
Type of encryption that uses two encryption keys: a public key and a private key. See also asymmetric key encryption. public key encryption
Separate area of a hard disk that holds the infected file until a virus can be removed. quarantine
Safeguard used by some businesses to track and identify the location of high-risk or high-value items. real time location system (RTLS)
Injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and joints. repetitive strain injury (RSI)
To copy backed up files by copying them to their original location on the computer. restore
Program that hides in a computer and allows someone from a remote location to take full control of the computer. rootkit
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally with the intent of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action but does not have the technical skills and knowledge. script kiddie
Security technique that allows users to choose an encryption scheme for data that passes between a client and a server. secure HTTP (S-HTTP)
Web site that uses encryption techniques to secure its data. secure site
Security technique that provides encryption of all data that passes between a client and an Internet server. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Type of backup in which users choose which folders and files to include in the backup. Also called partial backup. selective backup
Type of cookie that is used by online shopping sites to keep track of items in a user’s shopping cart. session cookie
License agreement included with software purchased by individual users. See also end-user license agreement (EULA). single-user license agreement
Gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by taking advantage of the trusting human nature of some victims and the naivety of others. social engineering
Computer security risk that occurs when someone (1) steals software media, (2) intentionally erases programs, (3) illegally copies a program, or (4) illegally registers and/or activates a program. software theft
Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroups posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once. spam
Electrical disturbance that occurs when an overvoltage lasts for less than one millisecond (one thousandth of a second). spike
Spam sent through an instant messaging service. spim
Spam sent via VoIP. spit
Technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network. spoofing
Program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user. spyware
Service set identifier. SSID
Type of UPS device that switches to battery power when a problem occurs in the power line. See also offline UPS. standby UPS
Device that uses special electrical components to smooth out minor noise, provide a stable current flow, and keep an overvoltage from reaching the computer and other electronic equipment. See also surge suppressor. surge protector
Device that uses special electrical components to smooth out minor noise, provide a stable current flow, and keep an overvoltage from reaching the computer and other electronic equipment. See also surge protector. surge suppressor
Type of encryption where both the originator and the recipient use the same secret key to encrypt and decrypt the data. See also private key encryption. symmetric key encryption
Prolonged malfunction of a computer. system failure
Inflammation of a tendon due to repeated motion or stress on that tendon. tendonitis
Backup policy that preserves three copies of important files: the grandparent, the parent, and the child. three-generation backup
Successor to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), a security technique that provides encryption of all data that passes between a client and an Internet server. Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Program named after the Greek myth that hides within or looks like a legitimate program. Trojan horse
Company or person a user believes will not send a virus-infected file knowingly. trusted source
Use of a computer or network without permission. unauthorized access
Use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities. unauthorized use
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the electrical supply drops. undervoltage
Safety specification that allows no more than 500 maximum volts to pass through an electrical line. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 1449 Standard
Device that contains surge protection circuits and one or more batteries that can provide power during a temporary or permanent loss of power. uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user. See also user name. user ID
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user. user name
Network that provides a mobile user with a secure connection to a company network server, as if the user has a private line. virtual private network (VPN)
Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission. virus
Known specific pattern of virus code. See also virus signature. virus definition
E-mail message that warns users of a nonexistent virus or other malware. virus hoax
Known specific pattern of virus code. See also virus definition. virus signature
Intrusion technique in which an individual attempts to detect wireless networks via their notebook computer while driving a vehicle through areas they suspect have a wireless network. See also access point mapping. war driving
Intrusion technique in which individuals use an airplane to detect unsecured wireless networks. war flying
Type of spyware that is hidden on Web pages or in e-mail messages in the form of graphical images. Web bug
Program that restricts access to certain material on the Web. Web filtering software
Security standard that improves on older security standards by authenticating network users and providing more advanced encryption techniques. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
Program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system. worm
A compromised computer whose owner is unaware the computer is being controlled remotely by an outsider. zombie
Group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the Internet that are used as part of a network that attacks other networks, usually for nefarious purposes. See also botnet. zombie army
Created by: sheidkamp