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DC1-9

Chapter 9 - Communications and Networks

DefinitionTerm
Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates up to 10 Gbps. 10-Gigabit Ethernet
Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates up to 100 Gbps. 100-Gigabit Ethernet
Abbreviation for first generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards, used to transmit analog data. 1G
Abbreviation for second generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards, that transmits digital data at speeds from 9.6 Kbps to 19.2 Kbps. 2G
Abbreviation for third generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards, that transmits digital data at speeds from 144 Kbps to 2.4 Mpbs. 3G
Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates up to 40 Gbps. 40-Gigabit Ethernet
Abbreviation for fourth generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards, that transmits digital data at speeds up to 15 Mbps. 4G
Series of network standards developed by IEEE that specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other. See also wireless Ethernet standard. 802.11
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area. See also WiMAX. 802.16
Short for asymmetric digital subscriber line; type of DSL that supports faster transfer rates when receiving data than when sending data. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line)
Short for Asynchronous Transfer Mode; service that carries voice, data, video, and multimedia at very high speeds. ATM
The amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications channel. bandwidth
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how two Bluetooth devices use short-range radio waves to transmit data. Bluetooth
Type of media that transmits multiple signals simultaneously. broadband
Digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) network. See also cable modem. broadband modem
Wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long distances such as between cities, regions, and countries and short distances such as within an office or home. broadcast radio
Electrical channel that transfers electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a computer, allowing the devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other. bus
Type of network topology in which a single central cable connects all computers and other devices. bus network
Digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) network. See also broadband modem. cable modem
Code Division Multiple Access. 3G standard for mobile communications. CDMA
Form of broadcast radio that is used widely for mobile communications, specifically wireless modems and cell phones. cellular radio
Network in which one or more computers act as a server, and the other computers on the network request services from the server. client/server network
Other computers and mobile devices on a network that rely on a server for its resources. clients
Short for coaxial; a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: (1) an insulating material, (2) a woven or braided metal, and (3) a plastic outer coating. See also coaxial cable. coax
A single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: (1) an insulating material, (2) a woven or braided metal, and (3) a plastic outer coating. See also coax. coaxial cable
Work online with other users connected to a server. collaborate
Software that includes tools that enable users to share documents via online meetings and communicate with other connected users. collaborative software
Four- or five-digit number assigned to a specific content or wireless service provider. common short code (CSC)
Process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information. communications
Transmission media on which data, instructions, or information travel. communications channel
Any type of hardware capable of transmitting data, instructions, and information between a sending device and a receiving device. communications device
Space station that receives microwave signals from an earth-based station, amplifies (strengthens) the signals, and broadcasts the signals back over a wide area to any number of earth-based stations. communications satellite
Programs that (1) help users establish a connection to another computer or network; (2) manage the transmission of data, instructions, and information; and (3) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. communications software
Coffeehouse, restaurant, or other location that provides personal computers with Internet access to its customers. cybercafé
Server that stores and provides access to a database. database server
Type of always-on connection that is established between two communications devices (unlike a dial-up line where the connection is reestablished each time it is used). dedicated line
Servers that perform specific tasks and can be placed with other dedicated servers to perform multiple tasks. dedicated servers
Temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines for communications. dial-up line
Communications device that can convert digital signals to analog signals and analog signals to digital signals, so that data can travel along an analog telephone line. dial-up modem
Communications device that sends and receives data and information to and from a digital line. digital modem
Type of digital technology that provides high-speed Internet connections using regular copper telephone lines. Commonly called DSL. Digital Subscriber Line
System for storage and management of a company's documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets. document management system
Transmission from a satellite to an earth-based station. downlink
The transfer rate that is achieved when data is being received on a communications channel. downstream rate
Type of digital technology that provides high-speed Internet connections using regular copper telephone lines. DSL
Modem that sends digital data and information from a computer to a DSL line and receives digital data and information from a DSL line. DSL modem
Enhanced Data GSM Environment; 3G standard for mobile communications. EDGE
Standard that defines how data transmits across telephone lines or other means. EDI (electronic data interchange)
Service in which users connected to a network can transfer money from one bank account to another via transmission media. electronic funds transfer (EFT)
Network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network should control when data can be transmitted. Ethernet
Evolution Data Optimized. 3G standard. EVDO
Portion of a company’s network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to access parts of an enterprise’s intranet. extranet
Recent Ethernet standard with a data transfer rate of 100 Mbps, which is ten times faster than the original standard. Fast Ethernet
Dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals. fiber-optic cable
Server that stores and manages files. file server
Type of peer-to-peer network on which users access each other’s hard disks and exchange files directly over the Internet. See also P2P. file sharing network
High-speed Internet connection that uses an antenna on a house or business to communicate with a tower location via radio signals. fixed wireless
T-carrier line in which users share a connection to the T1 line with other users. fractional T1
Type of FTTP that provides extremely high-speed Internet access to small businesses that use fiber-optic cables to access the Internet. FTTB (Fiber to the Building)
Type of FTTP that provides extremely high-speed Internet access for home users via fiber-optic cable. FTTH (Fiber to the Home)
Dedicated line that uses fiber-optic cable to provide extremely high-speed Internet access to a user's physical permanent location. FTTP (Fiber to the Premises)
Ethernet standard with transfer rates of 1Gbps (1 billion bits per second). Gigabit Ethernet
Navigation system that consists of one or more earth-based receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by satellites in order to determine the receiver’s geographic location. global positioning system (GPS)
General Packet Radio Service; 3G standard for mobile communications. GPRS
Handheld, mountable, or embedded device that contains an antenna, or radio receiver, and a processor. GPS receiver
Software that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over a network. groupware
Global System for Mobile Communications; 3G standard for mobile communications. GSM
Built-in feature in routers that prevents unauthorized users from accessing files and computers in a network. hardware firewall
Network consisting of multiple devices and computers connected together in a home. home network
Computer that controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. See also server. host computer
Wireless network that provides Internet connections to mobile computers and other devices. hot spot
The device that provides a common central connection point for nodes on a network. hub (star network)
Home network that extends basic network capabilities to include features such as lighting control, thermostat adjustment, and a security system. intelligent home network
An internal network that uses Internet technologies. intranet
Network standard used to transmit data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light waves. IrDA
Integrated Services Digital Network; set of standards for digital transmission of data over standard copper telephone lines. ISDN
Modem that sends digital data and information from a computer to an ISDN line and receives digital data and information from an ISDN line. ISDN modem
The time it takes a signal to travel from one location to another on a network. latency
Requirement for infrared that the sending device and the receiving device be in line with each other so that nothing obstructs the path of the infrared light wave. line-of-sight transmission
Network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. local area network (LAN)
Web application that combines services from two or more sources, creating a new application. mashup
High-speed network that connects local area networks in a metropolitan area such as a city or town and handles the bulk of communications activity across that region. metropolitan area network (MAN)
Earth-based reflective dish that contains the antenna, transceivers, and other equipment necessary for microwave communications. microwave station
Radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission. microwaves
Multiple-input multiple-output. MIMO
Multimedia message service; service that allows users to send graphics, pictures, video clips, and sound files, as well as short text messages to another smart phone or other personal mobile device. MMS (multimedia message service)
Service that provides television programs over the cellular network. mobile TV
ISDN line technique of carrying three or more signals at once through the same line. multiplexing
Collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media, allowing computers to share resources. network
The design of computers, devices, and media in a network. network architecture
Communications device that enables a computer or device that does not have built-in networking capability to access a network. See also network interface card (NIC). network card
Communications device that enables a computer or device that does not have built-in networking capability to access a network. See also network card. network interface card (NIC)
Legal agreement that allows multiple users to access the software on a server simultaneously. network license
Server that manages network traffic. network server
Guidelines that specify the way computers access the medium to which they are attached, the type(s) of medium used, the speeds used on different types of networks, and the type(s) of physical cable and/or the wireless technology used. network standard
Layout of computers and devices in a communications network. network topology
Term used to refer to each computer or device on a network. node
Electrical disturbance that can degrade communications. noise
Meeting conducted online that allows users to share documents with others in real time. online meeting
Single strand of a fiber optic cable. optical fiber
Type of peer-to-peer network on which users access each other’s hard disks and exchange files directly over the Internet. See also file sharing network. P2P
Network technique of breaking a message into individual packets, sending the packets along the best route available, and then reassembling the data. packet switching
Small pieces into which messages are divided by TCP/IP. packets
Personal Communications Services; term used by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to identify all wireless digital communications. PCS
Any of the computers on a peer-to-peer network. peer
Simple, inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers. peer-to-peer network
Easy-to-install and inexpensive home network that uses existing telephone lines in the home. phoneline network
Type of media that use wire, cable, and other tangible materials to send communications signals. physical transmission media
Wireless messaging service that allows users to send pictures and sound files, as well as short text messages, to a phone, PDA, or computer. See also MMS (multimedia message service). picture messaging
Type of home network that uses the same lines that bring electricity into the house and requires no additional wiring. powerline cable network
Server that manages printers and print jobs. print server
Standard that outlines characteristics of how two network devices communicate. protocol
Worldwide telephone system that handles voice-oriented telephone calls. public switched telephone network (PSTN)
Standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person. radio frequency identification
Device that accepts the transmission of data, instructions, or information. receiving device
Short for radio frequency identification; standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person. RFID
Type of network topology in which a cable forms a closed loop (ring) with all computers and devices arranged along the ring. ring network
Communications device that connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a network. router
Device that initiates instructions to transmit data, instructions, or information. sending device
Computer that controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. See also host computer. server
Service that allows users to send and receive short text messages on a phone or other mobile device or computer. See also text messaging. short message service
Legal agreement that permits users to install software on multiple computers – usually at a volume discount. site license
Short message service; service that allows users to send and receive short text messages on a phone or other mobile device or computer. See also text messaging. SMS
Type of network topology in which all computers and devices on the network connect to a central device, thus forming a star. star network
The device that provides a common central connection point for nodes on a network. switch
Any of several types of long-distance digital telephone lines that carry multiple signals over a single communications line. T-carrier line
The most popular T-carrier line. T1 line
The fastest T-carrier line, equal in speed to 28 T1 lines. T3 line
Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how messages (data) are routed from one end of a network to the other, ensuring the data arrives correctly. TCP/IP
Service that allows users to send and receive short text messages on a smart phone or other mobile device or computer. See also SMS (short message service). text messaging
Special series of bits that functions like a ticket. token
Network standard in which computers and devices on the network share or pass a special signal, called a token, in a unidirectional manner and in a preset order. token ring
Materials or substances capable of carrying one or more signals in a communications channel. transmission media
Transmission media that consists of one or more twisted-pair wires bundled together. twisted-pair cable
Two separate insulted copper wires that are twisted together. twisted-pair wire
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. 3G standard for mobile communications. UMTS
Transmission from an earth-based station to a satellite. uplink
The transfer rate that is achieved when data is being sent over a communications channel. upstream rate
Network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds with each other. UWB (ultra-wideband)
Third-party business that provides networking services such as secure data and information transfer, storage, e-mail, and management reports. value-added network (VAN)
Wireless messaging service that allows users to send short video clips, usually about 30 seconds in length, in addition to all picture messaging services. video messaging
Voice mail feature that allows users to view message details such as the length of calls and, in some cases, read message contents instead of listening to them. visual voice mail
Service that functions much like an answering machine, allowing a user to leave a voice message for one or more people. voice mail
Storage location on a hard disk in a voice mail system. voice mailbox
Online meeting that takes place on the Web. Web conference
Computer that delivers requested Web pages to your computer. Web server
Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B (business-to-business) interactions over the Internet. Web services
Short for wireless fidelity; term for any network based on the 802.11 series of standards. Wi-Fi
Network in which each mesh node routes its data to the next available node until the data reaches its destination – usually an Internet connection. Wi-Fi mesh network
Network that covers a large geographic area (such as a city, country, or the world) using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and radio waves. wide area network (WAN)
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area. See also 802.16. WiMAX
Central communications device that allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly among themselves or to transfer data wirelessly to a wired network. wireless access point
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that specifies how some wireless mobile devices such as smart phones can display the content of Internet services such as the Web, e-mail, and chat rooms. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
Location where people can connect wirelessly to the Internet using notebook computers, smart phones, handheld game consoles, or other devices. wireless Internet access point
Local area network that uses no physical wires. wireless LAN (WLAN)
Modem that uses the cell phone network to connect to the Internet wirelessly from a notebook computer, a smart phone, or other mobile device. wireless modem
Network card, often with an antenna, that provides wireless data transmission. wireless network card
Type of media that send communications signals through the air or space using radio, microwave, and infrared signals. wireless transmission media
Concept in which network hardware and software enable group members to communicate, manage projects, schedule meetings, and make group decisions. workgroup computing
eXtensible Markup Language. XML
Created by: sheidkamp