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DC1-8

Chapter 8 - Operating Systems and Utility Programs

DefinitionTerm
Computer account held by computer and network administrators that enables them to access all files and programs on the computer or network, install programs, and specify settings that affect all users on a computer or network. administrator account
Program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on Web pages, e-mail, or other Internet services. adware
Program that detects and deletes adware from a user's computer. adware remover
Windows 7 feature that works with the mouse to flip through open windows arranged in a stack. Aero Flip 3-D
Program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user’s inbox. anti-spam program
Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files. antivirus program
Operating system feature that automatically provides updates to a program. automatic update
To make a copy of selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium. back up
Programs that are running, but not in use. background
Utility program that allows users to copy, or back up, selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium, such as another hard disk, optical disc, USB flash drive, or tape. backup utility
Firmware that contains the computer’s startup instructions. basic input/output system
Basic input/output system; firmware that contains the computer’s startup instructions. BIOS
Operating system that runs on handheld devices supplied by RIM (Research In Motion). BlackBerry
Special disk that contains a few system files capable of starting a computer, which is used when the computer cannot boot from its hard disk. See also recovery disk. boot disk
Drive from which a personal computer boots (starts). boot drive
Process of starting or restarting a computer. booting
Segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device. buffer
Program errors. bugs
Term used to refer to some stand-alone operating systems that also work in conjunction with a server operating system. client operating systems
Process of turning on a computer that has been powered off completely. cold boot
The set of commands entered into a computer with a command-line interface. command language
Type of user interface in which a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys or key combinations) to enter data and instructions. command-line interface
To shrink the size of a file. compress
Program that runs the same on multiple operating systems. cross-platform
Reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors, thus speeding up disk access and the performance of the entire computer. defragmenting
Windows 7 feature that allows users to display a variety of gadgets on the Windows desktop. Desktop Gadget Gallery
Small program that tells an operating system how to communicate with a specific device. See also driver. device driver
Program that runs only on a specific type or make of computer. device-dependent
Operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. device-independent
Utility program that writes text, graphics, audio, and video files to a recordable or rewritable CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Disc. disc burning software
Utility that searches for and removes unnecessary files. disk cleanup
Utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster. disk defragmenter
Windows Vista feature that helps users locate documents by showing thumbnails that preview documents' content and allowing users to adjust thumbnail size to view document without opening it. Documents Explorer
Small program that tells an operating system how to communicate with a specific device. See also device driver. driver
Scaled-down Linux operating system designed for smart phones, PDAs, portable media players, Internet telephones, and many other types of devices and computers requiring an embedded operating system. embedded Linux
The operating system that resides on a ROM chip inside most PDAs and small devices. embedded operating system
The process of encoding data and information to an unreadable form. encryption
Windows file manager that includes the Documents Explorer, Pictures Explorer, and Music Explorer. Explorers
Computer that has duplicate components so that it can continue to operate when one of its main components fail. fault-tolerant computer
Utility program that shrinks the size of a file(s), so that the file takes up less storage space than the original file. file compression utility
Utility that performs functions related to file management. file manager
Windows Vista feature that works with the mouse to flip through open windows arranged in a stack. Flip 3D
Specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents. folder
Program with which the user currently is interacting. foreground
State of a file whose contents are scattered across two or more noncontiguous sectors of a disk. fragmented
Mini-program with limited functionality that connects to another program or provides information. See also widget. gadget
The permanent etching of images on a monitor’s screen. ghosting
Operating system designed by Google for mobile devices. Google Android
Type of user interface that allows a user to interact with software using text, graphics, and visual images, such as icons. graphical user interface (GUI)
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally. hacker
Operating system function that saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer. hibernate
Utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo. image viewer
Search utility feature that stores a variety of information about a file, including its name, date created, date modified, author name, and so on. index
Web browser included with Windows operating system. Internet Explorer
Operating system developed by Apple for the iPhone and iPod touch. iPhone OS
The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer’s clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer’s resources. kernel
Popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system. Linux
To access a computer or network as a user. log on
Compression method in which a compressed file can be returned to its exact original state. lossless
File compression method in which a file cannot be returned to its exact original state after compression, because the quality of a file decreases each time it is compressed, lossy
Multitasking operating system that is the latest version of the Macintosh operating system. Mac OS X
Operating system for Apple’s Macintosh computer. Macintosh operating system
Short for malicious software; programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter a computer’s operations. malware
Utility program that allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files. media player
Operating system activity that optimizes the use of random access memory (RAM). memory management
Remaining in memory while a computer is running. memory resident
In reference to operating systems, supports two or more processors running programs at the same time. multiprocessing
Operating system that is both a stand-alone operating system and a server operating system. multipurpose operating system
In reference to operating systems, enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously. multiuser
Windows Vista feature that helps users locate files by allowing users to adjust thumbnail size to view document without opening it. Music Explorer
Server operating system designed by Novell for client/server networks. NetWare
Employee who configures, installs, and maintains LANs, WANs, intranets, and Internet systems; identifies and resolves connectivity issues. network administrator
Instructions that remain on a storage medium until they are needed. nonresident
Software provided for use, modification, and redistribution. open source software
Set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware devices. operating system (OS)
Amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time. page
Technique of swapping items between memory and storage. paging
Scaled-down operating system that runs on smart phones and PDAs. Palm OS
Private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources. password
Operating system program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices. performance monitor
Define who can access certain resources and when they can access those resources. permissions
Utility program that identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performance. personal computer maintenance utility
Utility program that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions. personal firewall
Scam in which a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and/or financial information. phishing
Program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites. phishing filter
Windows Vista feature that helps users locate files by showing thumbnails that preview documents' content and allowing users to adjust thumbnail size to view document without opening it. Pictures Explorer
Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. platform
Technology that gives a computer the capability to configure adapter cards and other peripherals automatically as a user installs them. Plug and Play
Internet advertisement that suddenly appears in a new window in the foreground of a Web page displayed in the user’s browser. pop-up ad
Filtering program that stops pop-up ads from displaying on Web pages. pop-up blocker
Series of tests that is executed by the BIOS to make sure the computer hardware is connected properly and operating correctly. power-on self test (POST)
Process in which the operating system interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to be executed. preemptive multitasking
Program that intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in a queue. print spooler
Software that is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model. proprietary software
Lineup of multiple print jobs within a buffer. queue
Special disk that contains a few system files capable of restarting a computer, which is used when the computer cannot boot from its hard disk. See also boot disk. recovery disk
Several files that contain the system configuration information. registry
Program that reverses the backup process and returns backed up files to their original form. restore utility
Utility program that causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no mouse activity occurs for a specified time. screen saver
Program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify. search utility
Operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network. server operating system
Free downloadable software updates provided by the software manufacturer to users who have registered and/or activated their software. service pack
Icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file. shortcut
In reference to an operating system, allowing a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time. single user/multitasking
In reference to an operating system allowing only one user to run one program at a time. single user/single tasking
Operating system function that saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state. sleep mode
Windows 7 feature that allows you to copy screen elements to a file on your computer. Snipping Tool
A version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems that is a server operating system designed specifically for e-commerce applications. Solaris
Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroups posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once. spam
Operating system process that sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer. spooling
Program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user. spyware
Program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs on a user’s computer. spyware remover
Complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device. stand-alone operating system
Contains a list of programs that open automatically when you boot a computer. Startup folder
Area of the hard disk used for virtual memory. swap file
An open source multitasking operating system designed for smart phones and allows users to perform a variety of functions in addition to making telephone calls. Symbian OS
Specific operating system files. system files
Programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices. system software
The state of an operating system that spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application software. thrashing
Malicious-logic program named after the Greek myth that hides within or looks like a legitimate program. Trojan horse
To restore a compressed, or zipped, file to its original form. See also unzip. uncompress
Utility program that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files. uninstaller
Multitasking operating system that now is available for most computers of all sizes. UNIX
To restore a compressed, or zipped, file to its original form. See also uncompress. unzip
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user. See also user name. user ID
The portion of software that defines how a user interacts with a computer, including how the user enters data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen. user interface
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user. user name
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. utility
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. utility program
A portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, that the operating system allocates to function as additional RAM. virtual memory
Practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers. virtualization
Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without a user’s knowledge or permission. virus
Programmer who intentionally writes a virus program. virus author
Process of using the operating system to restart a computer. warm boot
Program that restricts access to certain material on the Web. Web filtering software
Mini-program with limited functionality that connects to another program or provides information. See also gadget. widget
Microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date, offering quicker program start up, built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery, improved security, enhanced searching and organizing capabilities, and an easy-to-use interface. Windows 7
Windows 7 edition that includes all the capabilities of Windows 7 Starter and also includes Windows Aero with its Aero Flip 3D feature. Windows 7 Home Premium
Windows 7 edition that provides users in all sizes of businesses with a secure operating environment that uses Windows Aero. Windows 7 Professional
Windows 7 edition designed for netbooks and other small notebook computers that allows users to search for files, connect to printers and devices, browse the Internet, join home networks, and connect to wireless networks. Windows 7 Starter
Windows 7 edition that includes all features of Windows 7 Home Premium and provides additional features designed to keep files secure and support for 35 languages. Windows 7 Ultimate
Interface for computers with more than 1 GB of RAM that provides an enhanced visual look, additional navigation options, and animation. Windows Aero
Windows 7 feature that allows you to coordinate your schedule with others' schedules. Windows Calendar
Windows Vista feature that allows you to organize name and address information. Windows Contacts
Windows 7 security feature that protects your computer from spyware. Windows Defender
Windows 7 feature that allows users to create DVDs from digital videos. Windows DVD Maker
Scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications, entertainment, and computing devices with limited functionality. Windows Embedded CE
Windows 7's built-in personal firewall that protects computers or a network from hackers. Windows Firewall
Windows 7 feature that includes programs for instant messaging, photo editing and sharing, e-mail, blogging, and video editing and sharing. Windows Live Essentials
Windows 7 e-mail feature. Windows Live Mail
Windows 7 instant messaging feature. Windows Live Messenger
Windows 7 video editing and sharing feature. Windows Live Movie Maker
Windows 7 photo editing and sharing feature. Windows Live Photo Gallery
Windows 7 blogging feature. Windows Live Writer
Windows 7 program that allows users to listen to Internet radio stations, play MP3 and other music formats, copy music and data to CDs, and watch movies. Windows Media Player
Windows Vista program that allows users to send and receive instant messages. Windows Messenger
Embedded operating system that includes functionality, programs, and a user interface designed for specific types of smart phones. Windows Phone 7
An image viewer that is included with Windows Vista, which also allows you to manage and edit photos. Windows Photo Gallery
Windows image viewer that allows you to print and e-mail photos. Windows Photo Viewer
Windows feature that can increase the size of memory by allocating available storage space on removable flash memory devices as additional memory cache. Windows ReadyBoost
Server operating system designed by Microsoft that is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003, including Web server management, enhanced server security, network access protection, and protection against malware features. Windows Server 2008
Collection of network operating system products, including Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-Based Systems; Windows Server 2008, Standard Edition; Windows Server 2008, Enterprise Edition; Windows Server 2008, Datacenter; and Windows Web Server 2008. Windows Server 2008 family
Server operating system designed for use by computers with 64-bit processors that function as a Web server. Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-Based Systems
Server operating system designed for use by businesses with huge volumes of transactions and large-scale databases. Windows Server 2008, Datacenter
Server operating system designed for use by medium- to large-sized businesses, including those with e-commerce operations. Windows Server 2008, Enterprise Edition
Server operating system designed for use by typical small- to medium-sized business networks. Windows Server 2008, Standard Edition
Vertical bar along the edge of the Windows Vista desktop that allows users to control and customize a variety of gadgets or widgets. Windows Sidebar
Windows Vista feature that allows viewing of messages on a powered-off notebook computer equipped with a secondary display. Windows SideShow
Windows 7 support for computers with multi-touch technology. Windows Touch
Successor to Windows XP, Microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date, offering quicker program start up, built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery, improved security, and enhanced searching and organizing capabilities. Windows Vista
Vista edition designed for businesses of all sizes that uses Windows Aero. Windows Vista Business
Vista edition designed for the basic home user. Windows Vista Home Basic
Vista edition that includes all capabilities of Windows Vista Home Basic and also includes Windows Aero. Windows Vista Home Premium
Vista edition that includes all features of Windows Vista Home Premium and provides additional features designed to make mobile users' computers more secure and easier to network. Windows Vista Ultimate
Network operating system designed for Web server and Web hosting businesses. Windows Web Server
Malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system. worm
Type of compressed files that usually have a .zip extension. zipped files
Created by: sheidkamp