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Buisness studies

Motivational theorists, communication, management and leadership styles

What are the 5 barriers to effective communication? Language, Noise, Overload, Emotion, Gaps and Inconsistency
What is formal communication? Channel of communication that s set up and organised by an organisation.
What is informal communication? Unrecognized by an organisation eg. meetings,chats
Name three communication nets Chain, Wheel and connected network.
What can the three communication networks be used for? Chain: it can be used to communicate important company policies. Wheel: It can be used to send different messages to regional offices. Connected: can be used for when the business is looking for new business ideas or solutions..
What is meant by the term communication? Messages passed between a sender and a reciver, through a medium such as a letter or fax or face to face.
Outline Information and sender and reciever: features necessary for communication to be effective. Information: What is communicated must be accurate,complete,simple and clear. Sender and reciver: The message must be sent from the right person to the right person.
Outline time and place and method" features necessary for communication t be effective Method: The method of communication must be right Time and place: Communication must take place at the right time and place.
Give examples of verbal communication: Interviews, conference, teleconferencing and videoconferencing, face to face
Give examples of visual communication: Posters, photos, bar charts, graphs, newspaper or magazine article and ads.
Give examples of written communication: Letters, memos, circular/newsletter, forms, minutes, reports, databases
Name things managers need to do: Plan,organise, coordinate,command and control
Name 4 important departments in a business: Finance, Human Resources, Production and Marketing.
Explain F.W Taylor's theory of motivation: Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control. So you need to divide tasks into smaller tasks and workers need to be given appropriate training and tools to work as efficiently as possible.
Explain Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation: There is a pyramid of motivation: at the bottom is physiological needs like food and water, then Safety like health, employment and body security.Love&belongings like friendship and family. Esteem like selfesteem and confidence. Self Actualization
Explain Herzberg's theory of motivation: People have two types of needs:Animal needs and physiological needs.Animal needs are; Status, Security,Working conditions,Policies/Administration,Salary. Physiological needs are:Acheivement,Recognition,Personal growth,Promotion&work.
Explain McGregor's theory of motivation: There's only 2 types of people X&Y.X people don't like work and will try to avoid it so you need to pressure them, they don't want responsibility-see security as need no.1. Y's like work and want responsibility, self actualization and are creative.
How would you motivate a theory X person? With: Time off,Peer assesment,Discard privileges,Competition and if they don't work hard they'll get extra hours with less pay.
How would you motivate a theory Y person? By:Promotion,Be allowed to make important decisions,pay rise, give more privileges,More benefits,More security,No supervision, Competition,Challenge them and allow them to organize social events.
What are some non-monetary ways of rewarding people: Time off, promotion, free health care,school fees payes, company car, free trips,pension,share options,free accomodation, expense accounts, gifts and privileges.
Why do businesses want to motivate staff? To make them work harder, to make more profit, to make more output and increase sales.
What is JOB ENLARGEMENT? It's where extra tasks are added to a job description giving more of a variety of work therefor increasing job satisfaction but do not add responsibility.
What is JOB ENRICHMENT? It's where extra tasks that require more skill/responsibility are added. They fulfill higher human needs and make employees more commited.
What is TEAMWORKING? It's where a group of workers are given responsibility for a particular process, product or development. They become more involved in the decision making process giving them a sense of control and increasing job satisfaction.
What is JOB ROTATION? It's where workers on a produton line switch jobs for a while and it gives a change of work, it's very good for when someone's sick and their job needs covering: more people will know how to do the job. This does not make work more interesting.
What is JOB SATISFACTION? People need to be happy when they work, so if thy are treated badly by management and the comapny gives them fringe benefits it won't make much of a difference.
Why do people want to go to work? Money,Security,Social,Esteem and Job satisfaction
What is a time wage and what type of jobs is it usually used for? It's where you get paid by the hours you have worked, the hours are recorded on a time sheet and good and bad workers are paid the same and supervisors need to make sure employees are working. A clocking system is needed. It's used factory workers.
What is a piece rate? It's where people are paid according to the amount of products thy make so the more they make the more money. It's used only when you can measure performance and workers usually work faster but quality is often ignored. They are often payed a basic salary
What is the difference between wages and a salary? A wage is paid weekly in cash or into a bank account accordint to a time or piece rate. A salary is paid monthly straight into a bank account.A salary is always paid. Usually for factory workers plumbers etc.
What is a salary? It's money paid monthly into a bank account. It's often used for proffesional workers and the money is calculated by year but paid in 12 dividends. There is a standard rate of pay and sometimes more money is given as a reward.
What is COMMISION? A payment system ususally operated by sales staff where their earnings are determined by how much they sell. Some are paid completely on commision.
What is a BONUS? It's like commision but is given as a reward for dong well, non sales staff may be given bonuses.
What is PROFIT SHARING? Staff are sometimes given dividents of profit as well as their basic pay and is used to motivate people. Often used in service sectors.
What is PERFORMANCE RELATED PAY? Pay linked to the effectiveness of a worker where it cannot be readily measured-Teachers, Police officers etc.It's when their immediate boss looks over them and then gives them a bonus.
What is SHARE OWNERSHIP? Employees are sometimes given some company shares and this will encourage them to work harder to make more money.
What is DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP? Democratic leadership encourages participation in decision making and teamwork.There is strong coaching,listening and motivating skills. However the manager still makes the final decision.
What is AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP? It's where the manager has full control of decision making and employees have little or no input in it and they are good in crisis situations and motivate people through rewards.
What is LASSEZ FAIRE LEADERSHIP? It's where employees are given as much freedoma s possible and the managers just communicate goals to employees but allow them to think how to complete objectives and let them make their own decisions and resolve problems on their own.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Autocratic leadership? Ads: Everyone follows orders, decisions are made quicker, work gets done. Disadvantages: it can cause conflict and people may be unhappy because they have no say in anything
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Democratic leadership? Advantages: Everybody has a say and worker are happy and work gets done.Disadvantages: Can cause conflict, the wrog decision could be made and decisions may take too long and too much communcation and tme could be bad.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Lassez faire leadership? Advantages: people are happy and work at their own speed AND get to utilize their own skills Disadvanatges: Work might not get done and people might get too demanding and become too lazy.
Created by: SophieF