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CGS Exam 2

TermDefinition
Application service provider (ASP) A company that manages and distributes software-based services over the Internet.
ARPANET The predecessor of the Internet, named after the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), which sponsored its development.
Blog A Web page that contains short, frequently updated entries in chronological order, typically by just one individual.
Broadband over fiber (BoF) Internet access Very fast, direct Internet access via fiber-optic networks; also referred to as fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) Internet access.
Cable Internet access Fast, direct Internet access via cable TV lines.
Conventional dial-up Internet access Dial-up Internet access via standard telephone lines.
Cookie A small file stored on a user's hard drive by a Web server; commonly used to identify personal preferences and settings for that user.
Dial-up connection A type of Internet connection in which the computer or other device must dial up and connect to a service provider's computer via telephone lines before being connected to the Internet.
Direct connection A type of Internet connection in which the computer or other device is connected to the Internet continually.
Directory search A type of Internet search where categories are selected to locate information on the Internet.
Distance learning A learning environment in which the student is physically located away from the instructor and other students; commonly, instruction and communications take place via the Web.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) Internet access Fast, direct Internet access via standard telephone lines.
E-portfolio A collection of an individual's work accessible via the Web.
Fixed wireless Internet access Fast, direct Internet access available in some areas via the airwaves.
Instant messaging (IM) A way of exchanging real-time typed messages with other individuals.
Internet The largest and most well-known computer network, linking millions of computers all over the world.
Internet content provider A person or an organization that provides Internet content.
Internet filtering Using a software program or browser option to block access to particular Web pages or types of Web pages.
Internet service provider (ISP) A business or other organization that provides Internet access to others, typically for a fee.
Keyword A word typed in a search box on a search site or other Web page to locate information related to that keyword.
Keyword search A type of Internet search where keywords are typed in a search box to locate information on the Internet.
Message board A Web page that enables individuals to post messages on a particular topic for others to read and respond to; also called a discussion group or online forum.
Mobile wireless Internet access Internet access via a mobile phone network.
Online auction An online activity where bids are placed for items, and the highest bidder purchases the item.
Online banking Performing banking activities via the Web.
Online gaming Playing games via the Web.
Online investing Buying and selling stocks or other types of investments via the Web.
Online movies Feature films available via the Web.
Online music Music played or obtained via the Web.
Online shopping Buying products or services over the Internet.
Online TV Live or recorded TV shows available via the Web.
Online video Video watched or downloaded via the Web.
Podcast A recorded audio or video file that can be played or downloaded via the Web.
Portal Web page A Web page designed to be designated as a browser home page; typically can be customized to display personalized content.
RSS (Really Simple Syndication) A tool used to deliver selected Web content to subscribers as the content is published to a Web site.
Satellite Internet access Fast, direct Internet access via the airwaves and a satellite dish.
Search engine A software program used by a search site to retrieve matching Web pages from a search database.
Search site A Web site designed to help users search for Web pages that match specified keywords or selected categories.
Social networking site A site that enables a community of individuals to communicate and share information.
Spyware A software program that is installed without the user's permission and that secretly gathers information to be sent to others.
Text messaging A way of exchanging real-time typed messages with other individuals via a cellular network and, typically, cell phones.
Twittering Sending short status updates about your current activities via the Twitter service.
Video-on-demand (VOD) The process of downloading movies and television shows, on demand, via the Web.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) The process of placing telephone calls via the Internet.
Web conference A face-to-face meeting taking place via the Web; typically uses video cameras and microphones to enable participants to see and hear each other.
Web service A self-contained business application that operates over the Internet.
Web-based training (WBT) Instruction delivered on an individual basis via the Web.
Webinar A seminar presented via the Web.
Wi-Fi hotspot A location that provides wireless Internet access to the public.
Wiki A collaborative Web page that is designed to be edited and republished by a variety of individuals.
World Wide Web (WWW) The collection of Web pages available through the Internet.
Antivirus software Software used to detect and eliminate computer viruses and other types of malware.
Biometric access system An access control system that uses one unique physical characteristic of an individual (such as a fingerprint, face, or voice) to authenticate that individual.
Bot A computer that is controlled by a hacker or other computer criminal.
Botnet A group of bots that are controlled by one individual.
Computer crime Any illegal act involving a computer.
Computer sabotage An act of malicious destruction to a computer or computer resource.
Computer virus A software program installed without the user's knowledge and designed to alter the way a computer operates or to cause harm to the computer system.
Computer worm A malicious program designed to spread rapidly to a large number of computers by sending copies of itself to other computers.
Cyberbullying Children or teenagers bullying other children or teenagers via the Internet.
Cyberstalking Repeated threats or harassing behavior between adults carried out via e-mail or another Internet communications method.
Denial of service (DoS) attack An act of sabotage that attempts to flood a network server or a Web server with so much activity that it is unable to function.
Digital certificate A group of electronic data that can be used to verify the identity of a person or organization; includes a key pair that can be used for encryption and digital signatures.
Digital signature A unique digital code that can be attached to a file or an e-mail message to verify the identity of the sender and guarantee the file or message has not been changed since it was signed.
Dot con A fraud or scam carried out through the Internet.
Encryption A method of scrambling the contents of an e-mail message or a file to make it unreadable if an unauthorized user intercepts it.
Firewall A collection of hardware and/or software intended to protect a computer or computer network from unauthorized access.
Hacking Using a computer to break into another computer system.
Identity theft Using someone else's identity to purchase goods or services, obtain new credit cards or bank loans, or otherwise illegally masquerade as that individual.
Malware Any type of malicious software.
Online auction fraud When an item purchased through an online auction is never delivered after payment, or the item is not as specified by the seller.
Password A secret combination of characters used to gain access to a computer, computer network, or other resource.
Pharming The use of spoofed domain names to obtain personal information to be used in fraudulent activities.
Phishing The use of spoofed e-mail messages to gain credit card numbers and other personal data to be used for fraudulent purposes.
Possessed knowledge access system An access control system that uses information only the individual should know to identify that individual.
Possessed object access system An access control system that uses a physical object an individual has in his or her possession to identify that individual.
Private key encryption A type of encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt the file or message.
Public key encryption A type of encryption that uses key pairs to encrypt and decrypt the file or message.
Secure Web page A Web page that uses encryption to protect information transmitted via that Web page.
Security software Software, typically a suite of programs, used to protect your computer against a variety of threats.
Spear phishing A personalized phishing scheme targeted at an individual.
Trojan horse A malicious program that masquerades as something else.
Two-factor authentication Using two different methods to authenticate a user.
Unauthorized access Gaining access to a computer, network, file, or other resource without permission.
Unauthorized use Using a computer resource for unapproved activities.
Virtual private network (VPN) A private, secure path over the Internet that provides authorized users a secure means of accessing a private network via the Internet.
War driving Driving around an area with a Wi-Fi-enabled computer or mobile device to find a Wi-Fi network to access and use without authorization.
Wi-Fi piggybacking Accessing an unsecured Wi-Fi network from your current location without authorization.
Computer monitoring software Software that can be used to record an individual's computer usage, such as capturing images of the screen, recording the actual keystrokes used, or creating a summary of Web sites and programs accessed.
Digital counterfeiting The use of computers or other types of digital equipment to make illegal copies of currency, checks, collectibles, and other items.
Disaster recovery plan A written plan that describes the steps a company will take following the occurrence of a disaster.
E-mail filter A tool that automatically sorts your incoming e-mail messages based on specific criteria.
Electronic profiling Using electronic means to collect a variety of in-depth information about an individual, such as name, address, income, and buying habits.
Employee monitoring Observing or reviewing employees' actions while they are on the job.
Full disk encryption (FDE) A technology that encrypts everything stored on a storage medium automatically, without any user interaction.
Government database A collection of data about people that is collected and maintained by the government.
Hardware theft The theft of computer hardware.
Information privacy The rights of individuals and companies to control how information about them is collected and used.
Marketing database A collection of data about people that is stored in a large database and used for marketing purposes.
Opt in To request that you be included in marketing activities or that your information be shared with other companies.
Opt out To request that you be removed from marketing activities or that your information not be shared with other companies.
Presence technology Technology that enables one computing device (such as a computer or mobile phone) to locate and identify the current status of another device on the same network.
Privacy The state of being concealed or free from unauthorized intrusion.
Privacy policy A policy, commonly posted on a company's Web site, that explains how personal information provided to that company will be used.
Ruggedized device A device (such as a portable computer or mobile phone) that is designed to withstand much more physical abuse than its conventional counterpart.
Self-encrypting hard drive A hard drive that uses full disk encryption (FDE).
Software piracy The unauthorized copying of a computer program.
Spam Unsolicited, bulk e-mail sent over the Internet.
Spam filter An e-mail filter used to redirect spam from a user's Inbox.
Surge suppressor A device that protects a computer system from damage due to electrical fluctuations.
System failure The complete malfunction of a computer system.
Throw-away e-mail address An e-mail address used only for nonessential purposes and activities that may result in spam; the address can be disposed of and replaced if spam becomes a problem.
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) A device containing a built-in battery that provides continuous power to a computer and other connected components when the electricity goes out.
Video surveillance The use of video cameras to monitor activities of individuals, such as employees or individuals in public locations, for work-related or crime-prevention purposes.
Created by: takeshertime