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ELLA1 Terminology

Terms for use in AQA AS English Language & Literature exam Unit 1

TermDefinition
Syndetic A list of items or descriptions that are separated by commas, with an 'and' at the end. This listing technique may often draw attention to the last item. Think about this. Listing is often used to build description and create images or emphasise emotions.
Asyndetic A list of items or descriptions that are separated by commas- with no 'and' at the end. This listing technique is used to give equal emphasis to each item on the list.
Compound sentence Two independent clauses, connected by a conjunction and/ or punctuation. It’s very unlikely that you’ll need to comment on these at all. One useful way would be if the conjunction is used to connect two contradictory clauses.
Complex sentence Two clauses where the second adds meaning to the first. The conjunction will be something like when, because, if, or although. These sentences may expand a description and provide additional information about a particularly important aspect.
Minor sentence This is a sentence that does not necessarily have a main verb in it, but which can be understood in the context of a specific discussion. Think about the emotion conveyed- anger/ happiness/ surprise/ they increase pace/ create tension.
Simple sentence This is a sentence that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. There will be lots of these- only comment on the ones that contain a significant message. They can increase pace if there are a lot in a row.
Declarative sentence These sentences state a fact. In addition to making a statement or sharing a fact, they always end with a full stop. Only mention the ones that express a particularly significant fact.
Interrogative sentence These sentences always end with a question mark and ask a question/ request info. Consider whether they’re rhetorical. Think about how they might be revealing a character’s/ narrator’s state of mind.
Imperative sentence These sentences also end with a full stop. They give a command and may appear to lack a subject, the implied subject is 'you'. If you spot any of these, what might it show about a character relationship?
Exclamatory sentence These sentences always end with an exclamation mark and express strong emotion. Consider what strong emotions are conveyed in the examples you find.
Conjunction A joining word (shouldn’t be used at the start of a sentence but an author may use one for added emphasis).Consider how they’ve been used to vary sentence structures. Have they been used at the start of sentences for emphasis?
Verb An action OR a being word- it can be in different tenses. Consider what any tense reveals about the narrator’s/ a character’s feelings and their perspective on an event. Observe any changes in tense and consider their significance.
Noun A thing/ person/ place. Can be proper/ common/ abstract/ collective. How do they add to a description? What is the relevance/ symbolism of a particular noun? Have nouns been used in an unexpected/ unusual place?
Pronoun Instead of using names. Can be possessive, personal and reflexive. Consider how they’ve been used to indicate the narrator’s/ a character’s feelings. Consider quantities and types.
Adjective This describes a noun (thing/ person/ place). How many have been used? What are they and what do they connote? Have they been applied unexpectedly to certain nouns?
Adverb Describes a verb. HOW? quickly./ WHEN? early./ WHERE? outside. How many have been used? What are they and what do they connote? Have they been applied unexpectedly to certain verbs? Have they been used alongside adjectives to build a description?
Syntax The way words are combined to create sentences. Just use this word occasionally if examining sentence structures in general.
Word classes Different types of words (nouns, verbs, adjectives...) You probably won’t have to use this phrase but at least you know what it is now!
Vocabulary This is a synonym for ‘words’ but is much more academic. You could consider formalities of words and their connotations.
Figurative language This is to reference any language that creates images: metaphors/ symbolism/ similes/ personification/ pathetic fallacy. It is not enough to use this term on its own. You’d be expected to demonstrate knowledge of more specific elements (those above).
Connotations These are the underlying meanings of words. It’s what a single word/ phrase is able to infer. Obviously only consider these when a word has more than one meaning- past the obvious one! This can demonstrate that you can conduct close analysis.
Semantic field Vocabulary can be grouped according to their relation and connection to one another. This will occur quite frequently as it is a common technique the author can use to draw attention to a specific theme or create a particular tone.
Metaphor A way of comparing something to something else. Uses the verbs to have or to be. Consider where these have been used, what image is created and why- what is the reader left to think about?
Simile A way of describing something by comparing it to something else, using the words like/ as. Consider where these have been used, what image is created and why- what is the reader left to think about?
Personification A special kind of metaphor where you write about something as if it’s a person with thoughts and feelings. onsider where these have been used, what image is created and why- what is the reader left to think about?
Symbolism When an object stands for something else. A candle might be a symbol of hope/ a dying flower might be the end of a relationship. Think about recurring symbols in chapters/ sections/ the whole novel and what feelings they create for the reader.
Pathetic fallacy The use of weather to reflect feelings and create a particular tone. A cruel lonesome wind is howling through the trees. This technique is particularly effective in drawing attention to the narrator’s/ a character’s feelings.
Register This refers to elements of spoken language and can therefore be ascribed to a text when you’re considering voice.mThis will differ depending on the audience, purpose and context.
Formal/ informal You should consider the level of formality and how it may change for interactions between different characters. Perhaps certain characters have a more formal voice than others? Very important for production questions.
Grammar Anything you can spot that is different to standard grammar should be commented upon. Conjunctions used at the start of sentences/ incomplete sentences. What characters does it apply to? What is the error drawing the reader’s attention to?
Lexis Refer back to word classes here. Think also about high and low frequency words.If you think a word is used often or surprisingly little, then comment on its significance. Don't know a word's classification? You could use, 'lexical choice' instead.
Phonology This term refers to the way words sound. E.g. Think about the effects of an ‘s’ sound in comparison to a ‘v’ or ‘b’ sound. Think about how these sounds might affect us when we read or how they may reflect events in the text or a character’s feelings.
Alliteration Where consonants are repeated. Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. They may not occur coconsecutively in a sentence/ section. Alliteration with an ‘s’ is sibilance.
Assonance When words share the same vowel sound, but the consonants are different. Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. They may not occur consecutively in a sentence/ section.
Onomatopoeia A word that sounds like what it’s supposed to mean. Buzz/ Crunch/ Bang/ Pop/ Ding Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. What image/ feeling do they create?
Rhyme Rhyming can be full or partial. Paired couplets- aabb Envelope rhyme- abba Cross rhyme- abab Think about the effect of the sounds and what they may emphasise for the reader. What image/ feeling do they create?
Narrative viewpoint 1st person/ 3rd person/ split. Identify what the voice portrays to the reader. Consider any changes in narrative voice. Analyse the changes in their voice- different thoughts and feelings.
Created by: hannahtyreman