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Microbiology Vocab

Vocabulary for Microbiology

TermDefinition
Essential Nutrient any vitamin, amino acid, nutrient or mineral that cannot be formed by the body and is therefore supplied by the diet
Psychrophile microorganism that thrives at low temperature (0-20 *C)
Mesophile microorganism that grows at intermediate temperatures
Thermophile microorganism that thrives at a temperature of 50*C or higher
Hyperthermophile microorganism that thrives at very high temperatures
Photoautotroph organism that uses light for its energy and CO2 for its carbon needs
Chemoautotroph (lithoautotroph) organism that relies upon inorganic chemicals for its energy and CO2 for its carbon
Chemoheterotroph microorganism that get their nutritional needs from organic compounds
Aerobe microorganism that lives and grows in the presence of free gaseous oxygen
Anaerobe microorganism that grows best in the absence of oxygen
Obligate without alternative; restricted to a particular characteristic
Facultative capacity of microbes to adapt or adjust to variations, not obligate
Microaerophile aerobic bacterium that requires oxygen at a concentration less than that of the atmosphere
Capnophile microorganism that thrives in high concentrations of CO2
Mutualism organisms living in an obligatory, but mutually beneficial relationship
Commensalism unequal relationship where one organism is benefitted without harming the other
Parasitism a relationship between two organisms where one is harmed and one is benefitted
Synergism correlated action by two or more microbes or drugs that result in a heightened response or greater activity
Antagonism relationship in which organisms compete for survival in a common environment by inhibiting or destroying one another
Saprobe a microbe that decomposes organic remains from dead organisms
Biofilm a complex association that arises from a mixture of microorganisms growing together on the surface of a habitat
Generation time time required for a complete fission cycle- from parent cell to two new daughter cells
Lag early phase of population growth during which no signs of growth occur
Exponential maximum growth rate in the growth curve
Stationary survival mode where cells stop growing
Death end of cell growth due to nutrition lack, depletion of environment, and accumulation of wastes
Turbidity cloudy appearance of nutrient solution in a test tube due to microbial growth
Osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane in the direction of lower water concentration
Isotonic two solutions that have the same osmotic pressure, no net movement
Hypotonic having a lower osmotic pressure than a reference solution
Hypertonic having a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution
Binary fission formation of two new cells of equal size due to parent cell division
Sterilization any process that completely removes or destroys all viable microorganisms including viruses
Disinfection destruction of pathogenic, nonsporulating microbes or their toxins, usually on inanimate surfaces
Antisepsis chemical treatment to kill or inhibit the growth of all vegetative microorganisms on body surfaces
Decontamination removal or neutralization of an infectious, poisonous, or injurious agent from a site
Sanitization clean inanimate objects using soap so that they are free of high levels of microorganisms
Sepsis the state of putrefaction, the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in tissue or blood
Asepsis a condition free of viable pathogenic microorganisms
Degermination to physically remove surface oils, debris, and soil from skin to reduce the microbial load
Microbial death death of microbe
Thermal Death Time (TDT) the least amount of time to kill all cells of a culture at a specified temperature
Thermal Death Point (TDP) the lowest temperature that achieves sterilization in a given quantity of broth culture upon a ten minute exposure
Denature molecular alteration resulting in the loss of normal characteristics
Aqueous water solvent
Tinctures a medicinal substance dissolved in an alcoholic solvent
Oligodynamic chemical having antimicrobial activity in minuscule amounts
antibiotic a chemical substance from one microorganism that can inhibit or kill another microbe even in minute amounts
Resistant R factors plasmids, typically typically shared among bacteria by conjugation that provide resistance to the effects of antibiotics
Beta-lactamases enzyme secreted by certain type of bacteria that cleaves the beta-lactam ring of penecillin and cephalosporin and thus provides for resistance against the antibiotic
Probiotics preparations of live microbes used as a preventative or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens
Prebiotics nutrients used to stimulate the growth of favorable biota in the intestine
Biota beneficial or harmless, resident bacteria commonly found on or in the human body
Superinfection an infection occurring during antimicrobial therapy that is caused by an overgrowth of drug resistant microorganisms
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) the smallest concentration of drug needed to visibly control microbial growth
Therapeutic index (TI) the ratio of the toxic dose to the effective therapeutic dose that is used to access the safety and reliability of the drug
Created by: rdnckgal