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ex research test 2

EXSC 4600 Research methods test 2

QuestionAnswer
What are the characteristics of pre-experimental research designs no random assignment. may not have a control group. they are valuable for answering a descriptive question or pilot testing an intervention protocol or measurement approach (exploratory)
types of pre-experimental designs discussed in class One-shot posttest design (case series)(XO) One group pre-test post-test design (OXO) static group posttest design (group 1:XO group 2: _O) >all of these have threats to internal validity and
Characteristics of non-experimental (descriptive) research designs not a rigorous means of verifying cause and effect. participants not typically randomized into groups Researcher doesn't introduce an independent variable and measure it's effect
Developmental research provides a description of developmental change and sequencing of behaviors over time.
normative studies describe typical/standard values for characteristics of a given population.
observational research involves observing a behavior or trait and recording it. Most observation is performed in real world/natural settings; may also occur in a more controlled environment. methods: from a distance, one-way mirror, video camera.
general characteristics of survey research survey - type of study that asks people to respond to questions. mailed or online questionnairs, personal or phone interviews. used to obtain quantitative descriptions of a population. best for getting attitudes, behavior, knowledge, practices history.
steps in designing a survey Clear meaningful research question read lit. on topic area identify topics to be covered do a rough draft of questions distribute to panel of experts. (establishes face and content validity) modify as needed second review, followed by pilot test and
types of questions: closed ended, filter, open ended Closed ended, Dichotomous, scaled, checklists and ranking questions.. Filter questions, indicate whether or not the questions are relevant to participant, then opens option to ask another question.. open ended, no rules on answer, answer in own words
validity and reliability of surveys Validity: most important=content validity> whether questions are adequate for the desired information; also if assessed by a panel of experts to provide feedback. reliability: enhanced by a clear, well-constructed questions. test-retest reliability used.
common sampling plans for surveys probability (random) sampling - preferred to increase ability to apply to population and remove bias.. Stratified random sampling - ensure representative sampling. when full population isn't available, cluster random sampling, used to get random sample
distributions of surveys paper survey by mail, online survey, personal, sent to person in authority, completed over phone
factors that increase survey return rates cover letter: informative, courteous, grateful, shows importance. survey construction: short and focused survey: clear instructions: bridging statements when topics change: sufficient space for open ended questions. appearance, time of year sent, followup
Characteristics of qualitative inquiry involves observation and analysis of phenomenon in natural settings. Explores, discovers and understands> the insider's view, the meaning beliefs, and values, multiple perspectives, features of everyday lived experiences. Rich detailed descriptions
strengths of qualitative research Designed to- study in natural setting:: Collect descriptive data:: It favors open and unstructured research designs:: Researcher is the key instrument of data collection:: Focuses on patient perspectives.
phenomenology: one of four types of qualitative approaches seeks to describe how an individual experiences an envioronment or situation. focuses on the essence or structure of the experience.
ethnography: one of four types of qualitative approaches Focuses on the study of a group and its culture. (the beliefs, values and attitueds that shape the particular group). ethnographers use first-hand observation in the field as a primary means of investigation.
grounded theory: one of four types of qualitative approaches a method of qualitative inquiry that results in the generation of a theory. The goal is to derive inductively from the data a theory that is grounded in the data
case study: one of four types of qualitative approaches comprehensive study of a single intsitution, cultural group, or person
Interviews (individual or focus groups): important because it is one of the most common data collection methods person to person most common focus gropus: optimal size is 6-10 people and 1-2 moderators/interviewers. open ended questions; less structured
questionnaires with open ended questions: important because it is one of the most common data collection methods for qualitative research constructed with open ended questions
observations: because it is one of the most common types of collection methods used for qualitative research. usually involves a prolonged period in the natural setting making observations and recording field knowledge
What are the general characteristics of sampling in qualitative research? purposeful sampling until saturation is reached. strive for depth; information richness. purposeful and they will continue to obtain participants until point of saturation.
Validity (credibility) judgement of the accuracy or correctness of research findings. triangulation increases creadibility
Reliability (dependability) judgment of the repeatability of research findings. dependability which is associated with consistency. detailed notes and aking the same question to a number of people and/or interview the same person again
Qualitative data analysis and reporting Analysis: coding - assigning codes or labels to words, phrases or sentences categories-grouping common codes in categories, Themes-grouping categories with similar meanings together into several major themes Reporting-quotes from participants, no number
key components included in an introduction of a research proposal
key components included in a review of literature of a research proposal
key components for methods of a research proposal
key components for discussion of a research proposal
What are the differences between scholarly and non-scholarly information? scholarly has the purpose of sharing results with other scholars vs. non-scholarly which is to entertain or inform in a broad general sense. Audience differs from researchers, academic faculty and students to general public. Highly structured vs. none
Research question/purpose statement: key questions asked when evaluating this is the question or purpose statement clear?
Introduction/literature review: key questions asked when evaluating this was relevant background literature provided, do the authors identify a gap or problem area in the lit., does this section justify and build a case for the study, do the authors emphasize significance of study and how they'll contribute to the field.
design: key questions asked when evaluating this Was the design appropriate? considering what is already known, the question asked, the outcomes of the study,and the ethical issues of withholding treatment
sample: key questions asked when evaluating this was the sampling method outlined? was the sample described in detail? was selection criteria provided? how many participants? justified sample size? demographically similar between groups? informed consent obtained?
Methods (procedures): key questions asked when evaluating this Did the investigators randomly assign participants to groups? was the group assignment concealed from investigators? were participants, clinicians etc blinded to group assignment. Were groups treated equally besides intervention?
outcomes: key questions asked when evaluating this were the outcome measures clearly described? do the outcomes measures have sound measurement properties (reliability and validity)? were data standardized and collected at specific intervals according to a pre-planned protocol?
Intervention: key questions asked when evaluating this Was the intervention described in detail? who deliverd it? more than one? were they trained? what was the setting of the intervention? was contamination avoided? was co-intervention avoided?
Discussion: key questions asked when evaluating this Are the results discussed in terms of previous literature cited earlier in the paper? do the authors identify weaknesses/limitations of study? are specific implications/applications discussed? are suggestions for future research presented?
What is evidence based practice? is a three pronged approach to clinical practice: valid research findings grounded in theory, clinical expertise, and the client an d situation. an application of research evidence in decision-making processes underlying the best practices in patient care
what is the evidence based practice information cycle? Assess, ask, acquire, appraise and apply
what are the five levels of evidence given for treatment outcomes? 1:randomized controlled/clinical trials. (-lose random assignment)2. cohort studies (lose control group)3: case-control study (-lose prospective data collection)4: case series/case reports (-lose observations made on patients)5: expert opinion
Randomized controlled/clinical trials are structured process to determine whether an intervention has an effect
Cohort study Quasi-experimental studies and non-experimental research designs comparing two non-randomized groups of participants
case-control study retrospective - epidemiological research design. involves identifying clients who have a disease or disorder and controls who do not
expert opinion opinions of experts in the field, physiological studies, basic and animal research
case report/series no comparison group, used in clinical situations that are rare or unique, or when a novel intervention has just become available
How is the evidence-based cycle used? Evidence based practice is a process of ASSESING clinical problems ASKING answerable clinical questions ACQUIRING relevant literature APPRAISING the quality of evidence and APPLYIGN the knowledge obtained from the research evidence.
evidence-based practice tools: differences between narrative reviews and systematic reviews narrative=broad, systematic=focused narrative=non-specified or specific research narrative= qualitative vs systematic=quantitative
Meta-analysis a systematic review that uses statistical methods to pool the data from two or more studies. .. requires that the interventions and outcomes in individual studies be similar. advantages= more convincing conclusions, disadvantages=overlook of bias
Cochrane library, PEDro and OTseeker Cochrane=worldwide distribution of their reviews of interventions. PEDro and OT seeker = provide bibliographic details and abstracts of systematic reviews, RCTs, relevant to PT and OT... are also rated on a scale of 0-10
Clinical practice guidelines: general description Systematically developed statements that help practitioner and patient decide on appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Provide summary recommendations for patient care (improve it). issued for health care providers or gen. public
Clinical practice guidelines: grades of recommendation Letters (A,B,C,D). A- based on level 1 evidence RCTs. B-based on level 2 evidence cohort. C-based on levels 3 and 4 evidence case controlled and case studies. D-based on level 5 evidence opinion etc.
Clinical practice guidelines: words of caution when implementing CPGs can be poor quality reflecting only expert opinion, and adversely affect practice. CPGs may standardize to average rather than best. clinicians might not like'em. Hard to keep CPGs up to date. must consider patient above all
Clinical prediction Guides are developed from a cluster of exam findings or characteristics. Clinical prediction guides assist in the evaluative or treatment aspects of patient care. example=ottawa ankle rules.
Created by: jseekins