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RNCH6

CHAPTER 6

TermDefinition
Level 1 Cache (L1 Cache) memory on the processor die
Level 2 Cache (L2 Cache) memory in the processor package, but not the processor die
Level 3 Cache (L3 Cache) a cache farther from the processor core, but still in the processor package
Hyper-Threading (Intel) (Intel) allow each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package
HyperTransport (AMD) allow each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package
front-side bus (FSB) it connects the front side of the processor that faces the outside world
internal bus inside the processor uses the processor housing, data, instructions, addresses, and control signal
back-side bus the portion of the internal bus that connects the processor to the internal memory cache
Processor frequency the speed at which the processor operates internally
multiplier a factor that determines processor frequency
overclocking running a motherboard or processor at a higher speed than the manufacturer suggests
multiprocessor platform a method of improving performance is installing more than one processor on a motherboard
multi-core processing the processor housing contains two or more cores that operate at the same frequency, but independently of each other
dual core has two cores and can support up to four instructions
triple core has three cores and can support up to six instructions
quad core has four cores and can support up to eight instrcutions
octo core has eight cores and can support up to sixteen instructions
memory cache holds data and instructions that the memory controller anticipates the processor will need next
dynamic RAM (DRAM) RAM stored in the memory modules (DIMMS) on the motherboard
static RAM (SRAM) memory in a memory cache
microcode groups of instructions that accomplish fundamental operations, such as comparing or adding two numbers, are permanently built into the processor chip
MMX (Multimedia Extensions) the first technology to support repetitive lopping, whereby the processor receives an instruction and then applies it to a stream of data that follows
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extension) "single instruction, multiple data" it allows the CPU to relieve a single instruction and than execute it on multiple pieces of data
3DNow! an AMD processor instruction set designed to improve performance with 3D Graphics and other multimedia data
SSE2 has a larger instruction set than SSE,
SSE3 improves on SSE2
SSE4 improves on SSE3
PowerNow! by AMD increases performance and lowers power requirements
Cool'N'Quiet by AMD lowers power requirements and helps keep a system quiet
Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST) by Intel steps down processor frequency when the processor is idle to conserve power and lower heat
Executable Disable Bit by Intel is a security feature that prevents software from executing or reproducing itself it appears to be malicious
Centrino an Intel processor, chip-set, and wireless network adapter are all interconnected as a unit, which improves laptop performance
thermal compound placed between the bottom of the cooler heatsink and the top of the processor
case fan a fan that helps draw air out of the case
cooler sits on top of the processor and consists of a fan and a heat sink
heat sink fins that draw heat away from the processor
liquid cooling systems a small pump sits inside the case and tubes move other liquid around components and than away from them to a place where fans can cool the liquid
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) the current set of standards that is used by BIOS, hardware, and the OS manage power
S1 State the hard drive and monitor, and processor are turned off and everything else runs normally
S2 State the hard drive, monitor, and processor are turned off, also called standby or sleep mode
S3 State everything is shut down except RAM and enough of the system to respond to a wake up call such as pressing the keyboard or moving the mouse. also called sleep mode, suspend mode, standby mode, or suspend to RAM
S4 State is called hibernation, in hibernation, everything in RAM is copied to a file on the hard drive and then the system shuts down, when a power button is pressed, the system does not have to go through the slow boot process.
P State save power by lowering the CPU frequency and voltage
C State used by the processor to stop its internal operations to conserve power
chassis air guide (CAG) a round air duct that helps pull and direct fresh air from outside the case to the cooler and the processor
Created by: rnovalski62